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The influence of fear appeal on persuasion effects for skin cancer public service announcements (PSAs) according to fear message framing and fear type
Unformatted Document Text:  SKIN CANCER PUBLIC SERVICE ANNOUNCEMENTS (PSAs) tanning beds by mentioning the guidelines to prevent skin cancer. For ad 4 which contains positive message and social risk, this ad mentioned “Not using tanning beds and sunbathing can reduce your chance of social isolation and risk of rejection by society.” Moreover, this ad also presented the positive consequences of not using tanning beds by mentioning the guidelines to prevent rejection from society. Pretest of stimuli To test the effectiveness of this manipulation about the message framing and fear type, the pretest was conducted with 30 participants. To see if the manipulation of the message framing of the ads was successful, participants were asked indicate how positive or negative the message was on a bipolar seven-scale (1 being negative, and 7 being positive) (e.g., “In general, the message of advertisement portrays the fear of skin cancer in a positive or negative way”). A t-test indicated a significant effect for message framing, t (29) = 10.131, p < .000. Specifically, participants who were exposed to the ad with the negative message (M = 1.80, SD = .775) perceived that the ad they were exposed to are more negative than those who were exposed to positive message ad (M = 4.80, SD = 1.082). Thus, the manipulation for the message framing was successful. Moreover, the manipulation of fear type was examined by question on a bipolar seven- scale (1 being health risk, and 7 being social risk) (e.g., “In general, the message of advertisement is about health risk or social risk”). The results showed significant differences between fear types. Participants exposed to the health risk (M = 1.00, SD = .000) were more likely to perceive that the advertisement demonstrated the health risk than those exposed to

Authors: Kang, Hannah.
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tanning beds by mentioning the guidelines to prevent skin cancer. For ad 4 which contains 
positive message and social risk, this ad mentioned “Not using tanning beds and sunbathing can 
reduce your chance of social isolation and risk of rejection by society.” Moreover, this ad also 
presented the positive consequences of not using tanning beds by mentioning the guidelines to 
prevent rejection from society.
Pretest of stimuli
To test the effectiveness of this manipulation about the message framing and fear type, 
the   pretest   was   conducted   with   30   participants.  To   see   if   the   manipulation   of   the   message 
framing of the ads was successful, participants were asked indicate how positive or negative the 
message was on a bipolar seven-scale (1 being negative, and 7 being positive) (e.g., “In general, 
the message of advertisement portrays the fear of skin cancer in a positive or negative way”).  A 
t-test indicated a significant effect for message framing, (29) = 10.131, < .000. Specifically, 
participants who were exposed to the ad with the negative message (M = 1.80, SD = .775) 
perceived that the ad they were exposed to are more negative than those who were exposed to 
positive message ad (M = 4.80, SD = 1.082). Thus, the manipulation for the message framing 
was successful.
Moreover, the manipulation of fear type was examined by question on a bipolar seven-
scale   (1   being   health   risk,   and   7   being   social   risk)   (e.g.,   “In   general,   the   message   of 
advertisement is about health risk or social risk”).  The results showed significant differences 
between fear types. Participants exposed to the health risk (M  = 1.00, SD = .000) were more 
likely to perceive that the advertisement demonstrated the health risk than those exposed to 

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