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The influence of fear appeal on persuasion effects for skin cancer public service announcements (PSAs) according to fear message framing and fear type
Unformatted Document Text:  SKIN CANCER PUBLIC SERVICE ANNOUNCEMENTS (PSAs) social risk (M = 5.93, SD = 1.534), t (29) = 6.966, p < .000. Thus, the manipulation of the fear type was successful. Procedures Participants were given a URL to the experiment website via email and asked to participate in the experiment within a week after the receipt of the email invitation. At first, on the first page of the website, participants were told that they would be participating in an evaluation of a skin cancer print public service announcement (PSA). After being informed of their rights as subjects, participants were asked to go to the next page by clicking the “next” button. On the experiment website, participants were randomly assigned to one of four experimental conditions. After exposure to the advertisements, participants were asked to complete a questionnaire containing measures for the dependent variable, manipulation checks, and demographic information. It took within about 15 minutes to complete the questionnaire and to participate in the experiment. Independent variables Message framing. Positive message framing was operationally defined as the positive physical or social consequences obtained by not using indoor tanning beds or sunbathing. On the other hand, negative message framing was operationally defined as the negative consequences caused by using indoor tanning beds or sunbathing. Fear type. Health risk appeal was operationally defined as appealing to skin cancer disease and death. On the other hand, social risk appeal was operationally defined as risk of social relationships and rejection from patient’s family members, coworkers, and peers.

Authors: Kang, Hannah.
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social risk (= 5.93, SD = 1.534), (29) = 6.966, < .000. Thus, the manipulation of the fear 
type was successful. 
Participants   were   given   a   URL   to   the   experiment   website   via   email   and   asked   to 
participate in the experiment within a week after the receipt of the email invitation. At first, on 
the   first   page   of   the   website,   participants   were   told   that   they  would   be   participating   in   an 
evaluation of a skin cancer print public service announcement (PSA). After being informed of 
their rights as subjects, participants were asked to go to the next page by clicking the “next” 
On   the   experiment   website,   participants   were   randomly   assigned   to   one   of   four 
experimental   conditions.  After   exposure   to   the   advertisements,   participants   were   asked   to 
complete a questionnaire containing measures for the dependent variable, manipulation checks, 
and demographic information. It took within about 15 minutes to complete the questionnaire and 
to participate in the experiment.
Independent variables
Message framing. Positive message framing was operationally defined as the positive 
physical or social consequences obtained by not using indoor tanning beds or sunbathing. On the 
other hand, negative message framing was operationally defined as the negative consequences 
caused by using indoor tanning beds or sunbathing. 
Fear  type.  Health  risk  appeal  was  operationally  defined   as  appealing  to  skin  cancer 
disease and death. On the other hand, social risk appeal was operationally defined as risk of 
social relationships and rejection from patient’s family members, coworkers, and peers.

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