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The influence of fear appeal on persuasion effects for skin cancer public service announcements (PSAs) according to fear message framing and fear type
Unformatted Document Text:  SKIN CANCER PUBLIC SERVICE ANNOUNCEMENTS (PSAs) Dependent variables Attitude toward advertising. Attitude toward advertising was operationally defined as the respondents’ favorable or unfavorable feelings with respect to a given advertisement. That is, attitude toward advertising meant the degree of favorable or unfavorable responses of respondents toward advertising itself. The measures for attitude toward the PSA developed by Schoenbachler and Whittler (1996) were used and modified for the current study. Attitude toward advertising were measured with five items on a seven-point scale anchored by: bad/good, useless/useful, worthless/valuable, not beneficial/beneficial, and not persuasive/persuasive. The attitude toward advertising score was determined by averaging the responses to the six items (Cronbach’s α = .930). Attitude toward using tanning beds and sunbathing. Attitude toward using tanning beds and sunbathing were operationally defined as the feelings in response to statements about using tanning beds and sunbathing. The measures for attitude toward using tanning beds and sunbathing were borrowed by Schoenbachler and Whittler’s (1996) attitude toward drug use scale. Subjects indicated their feelings on five items on a seven-point scale anchored by: extremely bad/extremely good, extremely unpleasant/extremely pleasant, extremely unfavorable/extremely favorable, extremely worthless/extremely valuable, and extremely unacceptable/extremely acceptable. An attitude toward using tanning beds and sunbathing was obtained by averaging the responses to the five items (Cronbach’s α = .873). Behavioral intention. Behavioral intention was measured with a single item (e.g., “In the future, I do not intend to use an indoor tanning beds or sunbathing”), borrowed from Hammond et al.’s (2006) scale of behavioral intention and modified for this study. These items

Authors: Kang, Hannah.
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Dependent variables
Attitude toward advertising. Attitude toward advertising was operationally defined as the 
respondents’ favorable or unfavorable feelings with respect to a given advertisement. That is, 
attitude   toward   advertising   meant   the   degree   of   favorable   or   unfavorable   responses   of 
respondents toward advertising itself. The measures for attitude toward the PSA developed by 
Schoenbachler and Whittler (1996) were used and modified for the current study. Attitude toward 
advertising   were   measured   with   five   items   on   a   seven-point   scale   anchored   by:   bad/good, 
useless/useful, worthless/valuable, not beneficial/beneficial, and not persuasive/persuasive. The 
attitude toward advertising score was determined by averaging the responses to the six items 
(Cronbach’s α = .930).
Attitude toward using tanning beds and sunbathing. Attitude toward using tanning beds 
and sunbathing were operationally defined as the feelings in response to statements about using 
tanning   beds   and   sunbathing.   The   measures   for   attitude   toward   using   tanning   beds   and 
sunbathing were borrowed by Schoenbachler and Whittler’s (1996) attitude toward drug use 
scale.   Subjects   indicated   their   feelings   on   five   items   on   a   seven-point   scale   anchored   by: 
extremely   bad/extremely   good,   extremely   unpleasant/extremely   pleasant,   extremely 
unfavorable/extremely   favorable,   extremely   worthless/extremely   valuable,   and   extremely 
unacceptable/extremely acceptable. An attitude toward using tanning beds and sunbathing was 
obtained by averaging the responses to the five items (Cronbach’s α = .873).
  Behavioral intention.  Behavioral intention was measured with a single item (e.g., “In 
the   future,   I   do   not   intend   to   use   an   indoor   tanning   beds   or   sunbathing”),   borrowed   from 
Hammond et al.’s (2006) scale of behavioral intention and modified for this study. These items 

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