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The influence of fear appeal on persuasion effects for skin cancer public service announcements (PSAs) according to fear message framing and fear type
Unformatted Document Text:  SKIN CANCER PUBLIC SERVICE ANNOUNCEMENTS (PSAs) were measured on a seven-point Likert scale (1 being “strongly disagree” and 7 being “strongly agree”). A behavioral intention was determined by averaging the responses to this one item. Results Manipulation check Message framing. To see if the manipulation of the message framing of the ads was successful, participants were asked indicate how positive or negative the message was on a bipolar seven-scale (1 being negative, and 7 being positive) (e.g., “In general, the message of advertisement portrays the fear of skin cancer in a positive or negative way”). A t-test indicated a significant effect of message framing, t (131) = 15.757, p < .000. Specifically, participants who were exposed to an ad with a negative message (M =2.16, SD =1.383) perceived that the ad they were exposed to are more negative than those who were exposed to positive message ad (M = 5.26, SD =1.345). Thus, the manipulation for the message framing was successful. Fear type. The manipulation of fear type was examined by question on a bipolar seven- scale (1 being health risk, and 7 being social risk) (e.g., “In general, the message of advertisement is about health risk or social risk”). The results showed significant differences between fear types. Participants exposed to the health risk (M =1.23, SD =.496) were more likely to perceive that the advertisement demonstrated the health risk than those exposed to social risk (M = 5.40, SD = 1.763), t (131) = 15.757, p < .000. Thus, the manipulation of the fear type was successful. Testing of research questions Overall, an ANOVA revealed a significant main effect of the message framing and fear type between four different versions of the skin cancer print public service announcements

Authors: Kang, Hannah.
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were measured on a seven-point Likert scale (1 being “strongly disagree” and 7 being “strongly 
agree”). A behavioral intention was determined by averaging the responses to this one item.
Manipulation check
Message framing. To see if the manipulation of the message framing of the ads was 
successful, participants were asked indicate how positive or negative the message was on a 
bipolar seven-scale (1 being negative, and 7 being positive) (e.g., “In general, the message of 
advertisement portrays the fear of skin cancer in a positive or negative way”).  A t-test indicated 
a significant effect of message framing, (131) = 15.757, < .000. Specifically, participants who 
were exposed to an ad with a negative message (M =2.16, SD =1.383) perceived that the ad they 
were exposed to are more negative than those who were exposed to positive message ad (M = 
5.26, SD =1.345). Thus, the manipulation for the message framing was successful.
Fear type. The manipulation of fear type was examined by question on a bipolar seven-
scale   (1   being   health   risk,   and   7   being   social   risk)   (e.g.,   “In   general,   the   message   of 
advertisement is about health risk or social risk”).  The results showed significant differences 
between fear types. Participants exposed to the health risk (=1.23, SD =.496) were more likely 
to perceive that the advertisement demonstrated the health risk than those exposed to social risk 
(= 5.40, SD = 1.763), (131) = 15.757, < .000. Thus, the manipulation of the fear type was 
Testing of research questions
Overall, an ANOVA revealed a significant main effect of the message framing and fear 
type   between   four  different   versions  of   the   skin   cancer   print   public   service   announcements 

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