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The influence of fear appeal on persuasion effects for skin cancer public service announcements (PSAs) according to fear message framing and fear type
Unformatted Document Text:  SKIN CANCER PUBLIC SERVICE ANNOUNCEMENTS (PSAs) (PSAs) in terms of attitude toward advertising (F= 4.362, p= .006). Table 1 showed that the advertisement which contained positive message framing and health risk (M= 4.4176, SD= 1.169) have the highest positive attitude toward advertising, while the advertisement with positive message framing and social risk (M= 3.3059, SD= 1.610) have the least positive attitude toward advertising. This result indicated that when people were exposed to messages which presented the positive physical consequences obtained by not using the tanning beds or sunbathing, they described the advertisement as good, useful, valuable, beneficial and persuasive, while descriptions such as bad, useless, worthless, not beneficial and not persuasive were given for the advertisements that presented the positive social consequences obtained by not using tanning beds or sunbathing. However, unexpectedly, there were no significant differences between four different versions of advertisements in terms of attitude toward using tanning beds and sunbathing and behavioral intention. The results of Research question 1(a). RQ1 (a) examined whether there are main effect of fear message framing and fear type, or whether there are interactive effects between fear message framing and fear type in terms of attitude toward advertising. The univariate analysis was conducted. Table 1 showed the mean scores and standard deviations of attitude toward advertising according to fear message framing and fear type, and Table 2 showed the results of the univariate analysis on attitude toward advertising. The RQ 1(a) revealed a partially significant main effect on the attitudes toward advertising. As shown in Table 2, the results of the univariate analysis showed that the main effect of the fear type was significant (F (1, 128) =8.285, p= .005). According to main effect of fear type, participants have a more favorable attitude toward advertising, when the advertising

Authors: Kang, Hannah.
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(PSAs) in terms of attitude toward advertising (F= 4.362, p= .006). Table 1 showed that the 
advertisement   which   contained   positive   message   framing   and   health   risk   (M=   4.4176,   SD= 
1.169)   have   the   highest   positive   attitude   toward   advertising,   while   the   advertisement   with 
positive message framing and social risk (M= 3.3059, SD= 1.610) have the least positive attitude 
toward advertising. This result indicated that when people were exposed to messages which 
presented   the   positive   physical   consequences   obtained   by   not   using   the   tanning   beds   or 
sunbathing,   they   described   the   advertisement   as   good,   useful,   valuable,   beneficial   and 
persuasive, while descriptions such as bad, useless, worthless, not beneficial and not persuasive 
were given for the advertisements that presented the positive social consequences obtained by 
not   using   tanning   beds   or   sunbathing.
  However,   unexpectedly,   there   were   no   significant 
differences between four different versions of advertisements in terms of attitude toward using 
tanning beds and sunbathing and behavioral intention. 
The results of Research question 1(a). RQ1 (a) examined whether there are main effect 
of fear message framing and fear type, or whether there are interactive effects between fear 
message framing and fear type in terms of attitude toward advertising. The univariate analysis 
was conducted.   Table 1 showed the mean scores and standard deviations of attitude toward 
advertising according to fear message framing and fear type, and Table 2 showed the results of 
the univariate analysis on attitude toward advertising.
  The   RQ   1(a)   revealed   a   partially   significant   main   effect   on   the   attitudes   toward 
advertising. As shown in Table 2, the results of the univariate analysis showed that the main 
effect of the fear type was significant (F (1, 128) =8.285, p= .005). According to main effect of 
fear type, participants have a more favorable attitude toward advertising, when the advertising 

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