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The influence of fear appeal on persuasion effects for skin cancer public service announcements (PSAs) according to fear message framing and fear type
Unformatted Document Text:  SKIN CANCER PUBLIC SERVICE ANNOUNCEMENTS (PSAs) The results of Research question 1(c). RQ 1(c) examined whether there are main effect of fear message framing and fear type, or whether there are interactive effects between fear message framing and fear type in terms of behavioral intention. As shown in Table 4, the univariate analysis revealed that only the interaction effect between message framing and fear type showed to be statistically significant, F (1, 128) =4.710, p= .032, while the main effects of the message framing and fear type on behavioral intention were not statistically significant. In terms of negative message framing, people who were exposed to health risk advertising (M= 6.43, SD=1.223) are more likely to have greater behavior intention, which was “I do not intend to use tanning beds or sunbathing,” than those who were exposed to social risk (M= 5.76, SD=1.579). On the contrary, in terms of positive message framing, people who were exposed to social risk advertising (M= 5.94, SD=1.632) are more likely to have greater behavior intention, which was “I do not intend to use tanning beds or sunbathing,” than those who were exposed to health risk (M= 5.35, SD=2.043) (See Figure 2). Thus, using either an advertisement with negative message framing and health risk or an advertisement with positive message framing and social risk is an effective strategy to get higher behavioral intention of not using indoor tanning beds or sunbathing. Discussion So far, most previous studies have proven that fear appeal influences positive effects on persuasion in a variety of public health PSAs (Miller, 1948). Given the prominent persuasive effect of fear appeal, this study extended further from the previous studies, and evaluated whether characteristics of fear appeal (e.g., message framing and fear type) affected the effects on persuasion or evoked the different persuasion effects or not. Therefore, the first goal of this

Authors: Kang, Hannah.
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SKIN CANCER PUBLIC SERVICE ANNOUNCEMENTS (PSAs)
The results of Research question 1(c). RQ 1(c) examined whether there are main effect 
of fear message framing and fear type, or whether there are interactive effects between fear 
message   framing   and   fear   type   in   terms   of   behavioral   intention.  As   shown   in  Table   4,   the 
univariate analysis revealed that only the interaction effect between message framing and fear 
type showed to be statistically significant, F (1, 128) =4.710, p= .032, while the main effects of 
the message framing and fear type on behavioral intention were not statistically significant.
In   terms   of   negative   message   framing,   people   who   were   exposed   to   health   risk 
advertising (M= 6.43, SD=1.223) are more likely to have greater behavior intention, which was 
“I do not intend to use tanning beds or sunbathing,” than those who were exposed to social risk 
(M= 5.76, SD=1.579). On the contrary, in terms of positive message framing, people who were 
exposed to social risk advertising (M= 5.94, SD=1.632) are more likely to have greater behavior 
intention, which was “I do not intend to use tanning beds or sunbathing,” than those who were 
exposed to health risk (M= 5.35, SD=2.043) (See Figure 2). Thus, using either an advertisement 
with   negative   message   framing   and   health   risk   or   an   advertisement   with   positive   message 
framing and social risk is an effective strategy to get higher behavioral intention of not using 
indoor tanning beds or sunbathing. 
Discussion  
So far, most previous studies have proven that fear appeal influences positive effects on 
persuasion in a variety of public health PSAs (Miller, 1948). Given the prominent persuasive 
effect   of   fear   appeal,   this   study   extended   further   from   the   previous   studies,   and   evaluated 
whether characteristics of fear appeal (e.g., message framing and fear type) affected the effects 
on persuasion or evoked the different persuasion effects or not. Therefore, the first goal of this 


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