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The influence of fear appeal on persuasion effects for skin cancer public service announcements (PSAs) according to fear message framing and fear type
Unformatted Document Text:  SKIN CANCER PUBLIC SERVICE ANNOUNCEMENTS (PSAs) study was to examine the impact of message framing and fear type in fear appeal on the persuasion effect of skin cancer public service announcements (PSAs). Furthermore, the second goal of this study was to examine how the interaction effects among these variables affected people’s attitude toward advertising, attitude toward using tanning beds and sunbathing, and behavior intention. First, the findings of this study demonstrated that the advertisement with positive message framing and health risk had more effective persuasion power on the attitude toward advertising. On the contrary, advertisements with positive message framing and social risk had the least positive attitude toward advertising. Thus, this result suggested that the most effective strategy to craft a message is to use messages which provide positive physical consequences obtained by not using indoor tanning beds or sunbathing. Second, one of the prominent results is that fear type had an influence on attitude toward advertising. Health risk has more persuasive effects than social risk. This result supported the results of existing previous studies which proved the effectiveness of health risk messages in things such as smoking and unprotected sex (See Block & Keller, 1998; Maddux & Rogers, 1983). This result also suggests and provides the strategies for how to increase people’s awareness of skin cancer. The incidence of melanoma, the deadliest form of skin cancer, has been increasing for the past 30 years (American Academy of Dermatology Association, 2009). Different from many skin cancers, melanoma grows very fast, and survival rates decline dramatically for cancers detected at more advanced stages. Despite the dangerousness and severity of the skin cancer, many people have not recognized this severity. Therefore, for people who pursue the tan without recognizing the dangerousness, the message which emphasizes

Authors: Kang, Hannah.
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study  was   to   examine   the   impact   of   message   framing   and   fear   type   in   fear   appeal   on   the 
persuasion effect of skin cancer public service announcements (PSAs). Furthermore, the second 
goal of this study was to examine how the interaction effects among these variables affected 
people’s attitude toward advertising, attitude toward using tanning beds and sunbathing, and 
behavior intention.
First,   the   findings   of   this   study   demonstrated   that   the   advertisement   with   positive 
message framing and health risk had more effective persuasion power on the attitude toward 
advertising. On the contrary, advertisements with positive message framing and social risk had 
the least positive attitude toward advertising. Thus, this result suggested that the most effective 
strategy to craft a message is to use messages which provide positive physical consequences 
obtained by not using indoor tanning beds or sunbathing.
Second, one of the prominent results is that fear type had an influence on attitude toward 
advertising. Health risk has more persuasive effects than social risk. This result supported the 
results of existing previous studies which proved the effectiveness of health risk messages in 
things such as smoking and unprotected sex (See Block & Keller, 1998; Maddux & Rogers, 
1983).   This   result   also   suggests   and   provides   the   strategies   for   how   to   increase   people’s 
awareness of skin cancer. The incidence of melanoma, the deadliest form of skin cancer, has 
been increasing for the past 30 years (American Academy of Dermatology Association, 2009). 
Different   from   many   skin   cancers,   melanoma   grows   very   fast,   and   survival   rates   decline 
dramatically   for   cancers   detected   at   more   advanced   stages.   Despite   the   dangerousness   and 
severity of the skin cancer, many people have not recognized this severity. Therefore, for people 
who   pursue   the   tan   without   recognizing   the   dangerousness,   the   message   which   emphasizes 

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