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The influence of fear appeal on persuasion effects for skin cancer public service announcements (PSAs) according to fear message framing and fear type
Unformatted Document Text:  SKIN CANCER PUBLIC SERVICE ANNOUNCEMENTS (PSAs) health risk, especially, “death” can be more effective to increase their awareness of skin cancer and reduce risks of skin cancer. Third, this study demonstrated that the interaction effects between fear message framing and fear type were found not only for the attitudes toward using the tanning beds or sunbathing, but also for behavioral intention. This result suggested that using either advertisements with negative message framing and health risk or advertisements with positive message framing and social risk is an effective strategy to evoke more negative attitudes toward using tanning beds or sunbathing and to get higher behavioral intentions of not using tanning beds or sunbathing. These fear appeal strategies can eventually reduce rate of skin cancer incidents. The results that an advertisement with negative message framing and health risk has more persuasive effects on behavioral intention as well as on attitude toward using the tanning beds or sunbathing are in line with previous studies. Some of previous researches found that one of the main factors which motivate people to use tanning bed is their beliefs about the benefits of a tan such as looking healthy, looking better, and looking more attractive (See Cho, Hall, Kosmoski, Fox & Mastin, 2010). Moreover, current skin cancer related media content have made people more willing to engage in tanning. According to Cho et al.’s (2010) study about magazine articles related to skin cancer, the amount of coverage of tanning bed use consequences was about 50% of the coverage of tanning benefits such as looking healthy and looking attractive. On the other hand, the amount of mentions of negative consequences of suntan or tanning bed use, such as skin cancer and death was compatibly less than tanning benefits. Therefore, if people are exposed to an advertisement with negative physical consequences by using tanning beds or sunbathing, this message could be against their perceived benefits of tan. That implies that for

Authors: Kang, Hannah.
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SKIN CANCER PUBLIC SERVICE ANNOUNCEMENTS (PSAs)
health risk, especially, “death” can be more effective to increase their awareness of skin cancer 
and reduce risks of skin cancer. 
Third, this study demonstrated that the interaction effects between fear message framing 
and fear type were found not only for the attitudes toward using the tanning beds or sunbathing, 
but also for behavioral intention. This result suggested that using either advertisements with 
negative message framing and health risk or advertisements with positive message framing and 
social risk is an effective strategy to evoke more negative attitudes toward using tanning beds or 
sunbathing and to get higher behavioral intentions of not using tanning beds or sunbathing. 
These fear appeal strategies can eventually reduce rate of skin cancer incidents.
The results that an advertisement with negative message framing and health risk has more 
persuasive effects on behavioral intention as well as on attitude toward using the tanning beds or 
sunbathing are in line with previous studies. Some of previous researches found that one of the 
main factors which motivate people to use tanning bed is their beliefs about the benefits of a tan 
such as looking healthy, looking better, and looking more attractive (See Cho, Hall, Kosmoski, 
Fox & Mastin, 2010). Moreover, current skin cancer related media content have made people 
more  willing  to  engage  in  tanning.  According  to Cho  et  al.’s  (2010)  study about  magazine 
articles related to skin cancer, the amount of coverage of tanning bed use consequences was 
about 50% of the coverage of tanning benefits such as looking healthy and looking attractive. On 
the other hand, the amount of mentions of negative consequences of suntan or tanning bed use, 
such as skin cancer and death was compatibly less than tanning benefits. Therefore, if people are 
exposed to an advertisement with negative physical consequences by using tanning beds or 
sunbathing, this message could be against their perceived benefits of tan. That implies that for 


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