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The influence of fear appeal on persuasion effects for skin cancer public service announcements (PSAs) according to fear message framing and fear type
Unformatted Document Text:  SKIN CANCER PUBLIC SERVICE ANNOUNCEMENTS (PSAs) people who pursue the tan due to the health benefits of tanning, message with negative health consequences of tanning are more effective. The results that an advertisement with positive message framing and social risk has more persuasive effects on behavioral intention for people also can be explained from previous studies. Some of the previous studies would demonstrate why social risk on skin cancer PSAs would be more effective. Tanning- related attitudes are affected by sociocultural influences, such as the media, peers and family. These factors transmit social norms (Cafri et al., 2006). Moreover, people tend to tan even though they know the risks of tanning and they have higher knowledge levels about skin cancer (Abroms, Jorgense, Southwell, Geller, & Emmons, 2003; Monfrecola, Fabbrocini, & Posteraro, 2000). Therefore, for people who pursue the tan due to the social norms, the message which emphasizes the way to keep social relationships can be more effective. Investigating whether characteristics of fear appeal (e.g., message framing and fear type) affected the effects on persuasion or evoked the different persuasion effects or not is beneficial in the academic field. With the high frequency of media coverage stating the benefits of tanning which influence people’s perceptions toward tanning, this study contributes to public health communication studies by examining how differently people respond to different kinds of fear appeals on skin cancer PSAs and suggesting guidelines for improving toward more persuasive skin cancer PSAs. Some limitations of this study should be acknowledged. First, the sample gathering gave some problems. Because this study was conducted using undergraduates mainly in their 20s from a single school for its source of subjects, it lacks the power to generalize the results.

Authors: Kang, Hannah.
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people who pursue the tan due to the health benefits of tanning, message with negative health 
consequences of tanning are more effective. 
The results that an advertisement with positive message framing and social risk has more 
persuasive effects on behavioral intention for people also can be explained from previous studies. 
Some of the previous studies would demonstrate why social risk on skin cancer PSAs would be 
more effective. Tanning- related attitudes are affected by sociocultural influences, such as the 
media, peers and family. These factors transmit social norms (Cafri et al., 2006). Moreover, 
people tend to tan even though they know the risks of tanning and they have higher knowledge 
levels about skin cancer (Abroms, Jorgense, Southwell, Geller, & Emmons, 2003; Monfrecola, 
Fabbrocini, & Posteraro, 2000). Therefore, for people who pursue the tan due to the social 
norms,   the   message   which   emphasizes   the   way   to   keep   social   relationships   can   be   more 
Investigating whether characteristics of fear appeal (e.g., message framing and fear type) 
affected the effects on persuasion or evoked the different persuasion effects or not is beneficial in 
the academic field. With the high frequency of media coverage stating the benefits of tanning 
which influence people’s perceptions toward tanning, this study contributes to public health 
communication studies by examining how differently people respond to different kinds of fear 
appeals on skin cancer PSAs and suggesting guidelines for improving toward more persuasive 
skin cancer PSAs.
Some limitations of this study should be acknowledged. First, the sample gathering gave 
some problems. Because this study was conducted using undergraduates mainly in their 20s from 
a single school for its source of subjects, it lacks the power to generalize the results. 

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