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The influence of fear appeal on persuasion effects for skin cancer public service announcements (PSAs) according to fear message framing and fear type
Unformatted Document Text:  SKIN CANCER PUBLIC SERVICE ANNOUNCEMENTS (PSAs) Second, even though this paper took great care through pretesting and manipulation checks to ensure that the stimuli used were effective, it is possible that advertisements with social risk also contain health risk. Moreover, stimuli used in this study cannot mimic exposure to a PSA in real life. Due to the difference between stimuli used in this study and actual print PSAs, there are possibilities that hinder the accurate measure for the effects. Third, in terms of advertising message exposure time, this study only exposed the advertisement message to the participants just one time for a very short time because of the limitation of time and cost. Because of this, we cannot guarantee that participants fully understood the messages before responding. In fact, because real advertisements get their effects through continuous and repeated exposure of advertisements, it is hard to generalize the results with this study. Fourth, this study did not provide a better understanding of the importance of segmentation of target. The effects of persuasion are not decided by just fear message framing and fear type. A causal relationship between the fear appeal message and behavioral intention toward tanning depends on people’s individual variables such as tanning status and self- monitoring (Levanthal & Trembly, 1968; Spielberger, Gorsuch, & Lushene, 1970; Synder, 1974). In other words, the difference of people’s status will cause the difference of people’s behavior toward skin cancer public service announcements (PSAs) as a moderator. Therefore, in order to measure the effect of advertisement messages according to the characteristics of people, further study is warranted. Given the importance of approaching different effective message strategies on PSAs according to target’s characteristics, however, the findings of this study also provide advertisers insight into effective uses of fear appeals and provide a meaningful step in this direction. Taken

Authors: Kang, Hannah.
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Second,   even  though  this  paper  took   great  care  through  pretesting   and  manipulation 
checks to ensure that the stimuli used were effective, it is possible that advertisements with social 
risk also contain health risk. Moreover, stimuli used in this study cannot mimic exposure to a 
PSA in real life. Due to the difference between stimuli used in this study and actual print PSAs, 
there are possibilities that hinder the accurate measure for the effects.
Third,   in   terms   of   advertising   message   exposure   time,   this   study   only   exposed   the 
advertisement message to the participants just one time for a very short time because of the 
limitation   of   time   and   cost.   Because   of   this,   we   cannot   guarantee   that   participants   fully 
understood the messages before responding. In fact, because real advertisements get their effects 
through continuous and repeated exposure of advertisements, it is hard to generalize the results 
with this study. 
Fourth,   this   study   did   not   provide   a   better   understanding   of   the   importance   of 
segmentation of target. The effects of persuasion are not decided by just fear message framing 
and fear type. A causal relationship between the fear appeal message and behavioral intention 
toward   tanning   depends   on   people’s   individual   variables   such   as   tanning   status   and   self-
monitoring (Levanthal & Trembly, 1968; Spielberger, Gorsuch, & Lushene, 1970; Synder, 1974). 
In other words, the difference of people’s status will cause the difference of people’s behavior 
toward skin cancer public service announcements (PSAs) as a moderator. Therefore, in order to 
measure the effect of advertisement messages according to the characteristics of people, further 
study is warranted. 
Given   the  importance   of  approaching   different   effective  message   strategies  on  PSAs 
according to target’s characteristics, however, the findings of this study also provide advertisers 
insight into effective uses of fear appeals and provide a meaningful step in this direction. Taken 

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