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The influence of fear appeal on persuasion effects for skin cancer public service announcements (PSAs) according to fear message framing and fear type
Unformatted Document Text:  SKIN CANCER PUBLIC SERVICE ANNOUNCEMENTS (PSAs) cancer prevention public service announcements (PSAs) are needed to reduce people’s tanning behavior and skin cancer rates. A prominent approach to enhance the effectiveness of skin cancer PSAs is the use of fear appeal to evoke the risks associated with the use of tanning beds and sunbathing. A variety of public health PSAs such as tobacco and HIV/ AIDS contain fear appeal messages, and these messages have a strong power to increase the interest of people and to persuade them to change their behavior (Miller, 1948). However, there are few studies of effectiveness of usage of fear appeal messages in skin cancer PSAs. Therefore, given that the lack of previous studies’ investigation of effectiveness of fear appeal messages in skin cancer PSAs, it is critical to identify whether or not fear appeal messages of skin cancer PSAs engage in preventive and intended behavior. Moreover, essential as it is to examine the effectiveness of fear appeal messages, it is also important to evaluate the role of individual variable such as tanning status. First, a strategy of the usage of fear appeal messages is used based on the causal relationship between fear appeal messaging and persuasion. According to fear message framing (positive/negative), there exist positive or negative effects. Positive message framing emphasizes the positive physical or social consequences when they adjust behavior to the recommendation. On the other hand, negative message framing emphasizes the negative consequences caused by not following the recommendation (Kahnerman & Tversky, 1979). Second, fear type can be divided into two types, health risk and social risk (Rogers, 1983; Unger & Stearns, 1983). Health fear appeals emphasize how patients will suffer from serious a disease if they do not adjust to the recommendation by appealing to the possibility of disease and death. On the other hand, social fear appeal emphasizes how patients will suffer from problems

Authors: Kang, Hannah.
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cancer prevention public service announcements (PSAs) are needed to reduce people’s tanning 
behavior and skin cancer rates. 
A prominent approach to enhance the effectiveness of skin cancer PSAs is the use of fear 
appeal to evoke the risks associated with the use of tanning beds and sunbathing. A variety of 
public health PSAs such as tobacco and HIV/ AIDS contain fear appeal messages, and these 
messages have a strong power to increase the interest of people and to persuade them to change 
their behavior (Miller, 1948). However, there are few studies of effectiveness of usage of fear 
appeal   messages   in   skin   cancer   PSAs.   Therefore,   given   that   the   lack   of   previous   studies’ 
investigation   of  effectiveness  of   fear   appeal   messages   in   skin   cancer   PSAs,  it   is   critical   to 
identify  whether or not fear appeal messages of skin cancer PSAs engage in preventive and 
intended   behavior.   Moreover,   essential   as   it   is   to   examine   the   effectiveness   of   fear   appeal 
messages, it is also important to evaluate the role of individual variable such as tanning status. 
First,   a   strategy   of   the   usage   of   fear   appeal   messages   is   used   based   on   the   causal 
relationship between fear appeal messaging and persuasion. According to fear message framing 
(positive/negative), there exist positive or negative effects. Positive message framing emphasizes 
the positive physical or social consequences when they adjust behavior to the recommendation. 
On the other hand, negative message framing emphasizes the negative consequences caused by 
not following the recommendation (Kahnerman & Tversky, 1979). 
Second, fear type can be divided into two types, health risk and social risk (Rogers, 1983; 
Unger & Stearns, 1983). Health fear appeals emphasize how patients will suffer from serious a 
disease if they do not adjust to the recommendation by appealing to the possibility of disease and 
death. On the other hand, social fear appeal emphasizes how patients will suffer from problems 

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