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The influence of fear appeal on persuasion effects for skin cancer public service announcements (PSAs) according to fear message framing and fear type
Unformatted Document Text:  SKIN CANCER PUBLIC SERVICE ANNOUNCEMENTS (PSAs) relating to social relationships or how a patient’s family members, coworkers, and peers will suffer emotionally and financially. The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of two variables in fear appeal on the persuasion effect of skin cancer public service announcement (PSA). Based on the assumption that there will exist a difference in attitude toward the advertising, attitude toward the using tanning beds or sunbathing and behavioral intention when fear type is presented in a fear appeal message, this study examines that combination of fear message framing (positive message/negative message) and risk type (health/social) to show more positive effects on consumers toward the advertising and behavioral intention. Specifically, the purpose of this study is to conduct an experiment designed by a 2 (message framing: positive message/negative message) X 2 (fear type: health risk/ social risk) factorial design between-subjects experimental design. Literature review of previous studies Fear appeal Fear appeals explained people’s cognitive processes of receiving a fear appeal by dividing them into two sub-processes: threat appraisal and coping appraisal. In addition, fear appeal was also explained by other two processes: danger control processes and fear control processes (Witte, 1992, 1994, 1995). In general, fear appeal is used with two distinct purposes. One is to motivate him/her to seek a solution by listing consequences which were intended to arouse a level of fear. The other is to motivate him/her to follow recommendations which were intended to reduce fear appeals by providing the necessary solution (Tanner, Hunt, & Eppright, 1991). Most fear appeal studies

Authors: Kang, Hannah.
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SKIN CANCER PUBLIC SERVICE ANNOUNCEMENTS (PSAs)
relating to social relationships or how a patient’s family members, coworkers, and peers will 
suffer emotionally and financially.
The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of two variables in fear appeal on the 
persuasion effect of skin cancer public service announcement (PSA). Based on the assumption 
that there will exist a difference in attitude toward the advertising, attitude toward the using 
tanning beds or sunbathing and behavioral intention when fear type is presented in a fear appeal 
message,   this   study   examines   that   combination   of   fear   message   framing   (positive 
message/negative   message)   and   risk   type   (health/social)   to   show   more   positive   effects   on 
consumers toward the advertising and behavioral intention. 
Specifically,   the  purpose  of  this  study is  to   conduct   an  experiment   designed  by a  2 
(message framing: positive message/negative message) X 2 (fear type: health risk/ social risk) 
factorial design between-subjects experimental design.
Literature review of previous studies
Fear appeal
Fear   appeals  explained   people’s   cognitive   processes   of   receiving   a   fear   appeal   by 
dividing them into two sub-processes: threat appraisal and coping appraisal. In addition, fear 
appeal was  also  explained by other two processes: danger control processes and fear control 
processes (Witte, 1992, 1994, 1995).
In general, fear appeal is used with two distinct purposes. One is to motivate him/her to 
seek a solution by listing consequences which were intended to arouse a level of fear. The other 
is to motivate him/her to follow recommendations which were intended to reduce fear appeals by 
providing the necessary solution (Tanner, Hunt, & Eppright, 1991). Most fear appeal studies 


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