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The influence of fear appeal on persuasion effects for skin cancer public service announcements (PSAs) according to fear message framing and fear type
Unformatted Document Text:  SKIN CANCER PUBLIC SERVICE ANNOUNCEMENTS (PSAs) have investigated the effect of fear appeal messages on behavior intentions (See Floyd, Prentice- Dunn, & Rogers, 2000). Message framing Message framing has been defined as either positive or negative message framing inspired by Kahneman and Tversky's (1979, 1982) prospect theory. Positive message framing has been defined by focusing on positive product attributes or benefits gained through product use. Negative message framing has been defined by emphasizing negative product attributes or benefits lost by not using the product. Fear appeal uses positive fear appeal and negative fear appeal. Positive fear appeal emphasizes the positive physical or social consequences of accepting the communicator’s recommendation. Because fear is a negative emotion, fear can be positive by being provided by the physical or psychological benefits or followed positive consequences by accepting the recommendation. On the other hand, negative fear appeal emphasizes the negative consequences caused by not following their recommendation (Robberson & Rogers, 1988). Given people’s perception that they do not want to cause negative consequences and they feel the threat of experiencing these kinds on consequences, they are motivated to protect themselves from not only psychological and social, but also physical threats, and there are more possibilities to follow recommended behavior (Witte, Meyer, & Martell, 2001). Robberson and Rogers (1988) extended the knowledge of fear appeals and attitude change by examining the effects of negative and positive persuasive appeals message framing on health and self-esteem. The results showed that the traditional negative appeal to health was more persuasive than the positive appeal. A positive appeal to self-esteem, however, was superior

Authors: Kang, Hannah.
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have investigated the effect of fear appeal messages on behavior intentions (See Floyd, Prentice-
Dunn, & Rogers, 2000).
Message framing
Message   framing   has   been   defined   as   either   positive   or   negative   message   framing 
inspired by Kahneman and Tversky's (1979, 1982) prospect theory. Positive message framing has 
been defined by focusing on positive product attributes or benefits gained through product use. 
Negative   message   framing   has   been   defined   by   emphasizing   negative   product   attributes   or 
benefits lost by not using the product. 
Fear   appeal   uses   positive   fear   appeal   and   negative   fear   appeal.   Positive   fear   appeal 
emphasizes   the   positive   physical   or   social   consequences   of   accepting   the   communicator’s 
recommendation. Because fear is a negative emotion, fear can be positive by being provided by 
the   physical   or   psychological   benefits   or   followed   positive   consequences   by   accepting   the 
recommendation.  On the other hand, negative fear appeal emphasizes the negative consequences 
caused by not following their recommendation (Robberson & Rogers, 1988). Given  people’s 
perception that they do not want to cause negative consequences and they feel the threat of 
experiencing these kinds on consequences, they are motivated to protect themselves from not 
only psychological and social, but also physical threats, and there are more possibilities to follow 
recommended behavior (Witte, Meyer, & Martell, 2001). 
Robberson   and   Rogers   (1988)   extended   the   knowledge   of   fear   appeals   and   attitude 
change by examining the effects of negative and positive persuasive appeals message framing on 
health and self-esteem. The results showed that the traditional negative appeal to health was 
more persuasive than the positive appeal. A positive appeal to self-esteem, however, was superior 

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