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The influence of fear appeal on persuasion effects for skin cancer public service announcements (PSAs) according to fear message framing and fear type
Unformatted Document Text:  SKIN CANCER PUBLIC SERVICE ANNOUNCEMENTS (PSAs) to a negative appeal to self-esteem. Moreover, they suggested that mass media health campaigns should use both negative and positive appeals. Furthermore, some studies showed that the effects of health issue advertising are affected by message framing and the receiver’s individual characteristics. According to Meyerowitz and Chaiken’s (1987) study, the women who were exposed to a negatively framed message were more persuaded than women who were exposed to a positively framed message. Maheswaran and Meyers-Levy (1990) explained the effects of message framing on people’s detailed message processing. This study investigated whether differences in the degree to which people engage in detailed message processing accounted for the mixed results. The results showed that positive message framing is more effective to persuade people when detailed processing is not needed. However, negative message framing is more persuasive when detailed processing is emphasized. Fear type Fear type can be divided into two types, health risk and social risk (Rogers, 1983; Unger & Stearns, 1983). Health risk appeal emphasizes how patients will suffer from serious a disease if they do not adjust to their recommendation by appealing to disease and death. On the other hand, social risk appeal emphasizes how patients will suffer from social disapproval and rejection or how a patient’s family members, coworkers, and peers will suffer emotionally and financially due to a patient’s disease or premature death (Pechmann, Zhao, Goldberg, and Reibling, 2003). From the perspective of protection motivation theory (Rogers, 1983), the intent was focused on increasing perceptions of health risk. Existing studies have similar interventions in order to increase perceptions of health risks in such topics: smoking (Maddux & Rogers, 1983),

Authors: Kang, Hannah.
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to a negative appeal to self-esteem. Moreover, they suggested that mass media health campaigns 
should use both negative and positive appeals.
Furthermore, some studies showed that the effects of health issue advertising are affected 
by message framing and the receiver’s individual characteristics. According to Meyerowitz and 
Chaiken’s (1987) study, the women who were exposed to a negatively framed message were 
more persuaded than women who were exposed to a positively framed message. Maheswaran 
and Meyers-Levy (1990) explained the effects of message framing on people’s detailed message 
processing. This study investigated whether differences in the degree to which people engage in 
detailed message processing accounted for the mixed results. The results showed that positive 
message framing is more effective to persuade people when detailed processing is not needed. 
However, negative message framing is more persuasive when detailed processing is emphasized. 
Fear type
Fear type can be divided into two types, health risk and social risk (Rogers, 1983; Unger 
& Stearns, 1983). Health risk appeal emphasizes how patients will suffer from serious a disease 
if they do not adjust to their recommendation by appealing to disease and death. On the other 
hand,   social   risk   appeal   emphasizes   how   patients   will   suffer   from   social   disapproval   and 
rejection or how a patient’s family members, coworkers, and peers will suffer emotionally and 
financially   due   to   a   patient’s   disease   or   premature   death   (Pechmann,   Zhao,   Goldberg,   and 
Reibling, 2003).
From the   perspective  of  protection   motivation   theory (Rogers,  1983),  the   intent  was 
focused on increasing perceptions of health risk. Existing studies have similar interventions in 
order to increase perceptions of health risks in such topics: smoking (Maddux & Rogers, 1983), 

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