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The influence of fear appeal on persuasion effects for skin cancer public service announcements (PSAs) according to fear message framing and fear type
Unformatted Document Text:  SKIN CANCER PUBLIC SERVICE ANNOUNCEMENTS (PSAs) unprotected sex (Block & Keller, 1998). However, Rogers (1983) explained that people’s motivation to engage in desired behaviors is not only to avoid a health risk but also to avoid social or interpersonal risks. Therefore, messages that emphasize social risks have been an increasing focus for researchers (Jones & Leary, 1994; Mahler et al, 1997, 2005; Schoenbachler & Wittler, 1996). There are some studies which examine and compared the effect of health risk and social risk messages and showed that the social risk messages more are effective. Schoenbachler and Wittler (1996) examined and compared the effects of physical and social threat communication on print anti-drug PSAs. The results showed that social threat messages on PSAs are more persuasive than physical threat messages in terms of attitude toward the PSAs, attitude toward drug use, and behavior intention to use drugs. That is, subjects indicated a more favorable attitude toward the social threat PSAs and a more negative attitude toward drug use after being exposed to a social threat messages rather than a physical threat messages. Moreover, subjects indicated that they were less likely to ever use drugs after being exposed to social threat messaging. Jones and Leary (1994) compared the effectiveness of health risk based and appearance risk based messages on university students' intentions to protect their skin against the sun's damaging rays through experiment. Overall, the results proved that the message that dealt with the negative effects of the sun on appearance was more effective in promoting intentions to practice safe-sun behaviors than health risk messages. Mahler, Fitzpatrick, Parker and Lapin (1997) examined the efficacy of health-based and appearance- based message intervention designed to increase sunscreen use. The results of this study showed that appearance-based messages are more effective among older students groups,

Authors: Kang, Hannah.
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unprotected   sex   (Block   &   Keller,   1998).   However,   Rogers   (1983)   explained   that   people’s 
motivation to engage in desired behaviors is not only to avoid a health risk but also to avoid 
social   or   interpersonal   risks.  Therefore,   messages   that   emphasize   social   risks   have   been   an 
increasing focus for researchers (Jones & Leary, 1994; Mahler et al, 1997, 2005; Schoenbachler 
& Wittler, 1996). 
There are some studies which examine and compared the effect of health risk and social 
risk messages and showed that the social risk messages more are effective. Schoenbachler and 
Wittler (1996) examined and compared the effects of physical and social threat communication 
on print anti-drug PSAs. The results showed that social threat messages on PSAs are more 
persuasive than physical threat messages in terms of attitude toward the PSAs, attitude toward 
drug  use,  and  behavior  intention  to  use  drugs. That  is, subjects  indicated  a  more  favorable 
attitude toward the social threat PSAs and a more negative attitude toward drug use after being 
exposed to a social threat messages rather than a physical threat messages. Moreover, subjects 
indicated   that   they   were   less   likely   to   ever   use   drugs   after   being   exposed   to   social   threat 
Jones and Leary (1994) compared the effectiveness of health risk based and appearance 
risk based messages  on university students'  intentions to protect their skin against the sun's 
damaging rays through experiment. Overall, the results proved that the message that dealt with 
the negative effects of the sun on appearance was more effective in promoting intentions to 
practice safe-sun behaviors than health risk messages.
Mahler, Fitzpatrick, Parker and Lapin (1997) examined the efficacy of health-based and 
appearance- based message intervention designed to increase sunscreen use. The results of this 
study showed that appearance-based messages are more effective among older students groups, 

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