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The influence of fear appeal on persuasion effects for skin cancer public service announcements (PSAs) according to fear message framing and fear type
Unformatted Document Text:  SKIN CANCER PUBLIC SERVICE ANNOUNCEMENTS (PSAs) Participants A total of 140 undergraduate students at a major university in the southeastern United States participated in an on-line survey in return for extra credit. Of the 140 participants, 8 failed to complete the questionnaire and/or provided incomplete responses and thus were excluded from subsequent data analysis. Participant’s ages ranged from 19 to 34, with an average age of 22 years old (SD = 2.303). Female respondents (81.8 %) outnumbered male participants (18.2%). Stimulus development Four different versions of the skin cancer print public service announcements (PSAs) were developed: 2 (message framing: positive message/negative message) X 2 (fear type: health risk/ social risk). For ad 1 which contains negative message and health risk, “death” fear was evoked through informational facts that UV rays emitted by using tanning beds can cause skin cancer or deadly melanoma. Moreover, by mentioning the death rate such as “1 in 5 Americans will develop skin cancer during their lifetime” and “1 American dies of melanoma almost every hour,” the negative consequences of health risk were evoked. For ad 2 which contains negative message and social risk, “social isolation” and “risk of rejection by society” by UV rays that can cause skin cancer or deadly melanoma was described. Moreover, by emphasizing family members and friends’ suffering emotionally and financially by people who get skin cancer as well as the possibility of rejection from family members and friends, the ad evoked negative consequences on social relationship. For ad 3 which contains positive message and health risk, “death” fear was described by the sentence, “Not using tanning beds and sunbathing can reduce your chance of getting skin cancer- deadly melanoma.” Moreover, this ad mentioned the positive consequence of not using

Authors: Kang, Hannah.
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A total of 140 undergraduate students  at a major university in the southeastern United 
States participated in an on-line survey in return for extra credit. Of the 140 participants, 8 failed 
to complete the questionnaire and/or provided incomplete responses and thus were excluded 
from subsequent data analysis. Participant’s ages ranged from 19 to 34, with an average age of 
22 years old (SD = 2.303). Female respondents (81.8 %) outnumbered male participants (18.2%).
Stimulus development
Four different versions of the skin cancer print public service announcements (PSAs) 
were developed: 2 (message framing: positive message/negative message) X 2 (fear type: health 
risk/ social risk). 
For ad 1 which contains negative message and health risk, “death” fear was evoked 
through informational facts that UV rays emitted by using tanning beds can cause skin cancer or 
deadly  melanoma.  Moreover,  by mentioning  the  death  rate  such as  “1  in 5 Americans  will 
develop skin cancer during their lifetime” and “1 American dies of melanoma almost every 
hour,” the negative consequences of health risk were evoked. For ad 2 which contains negative 
message and social risk, “social isolation” and “risk of rejection by society” by UV rays that can 
cause   skin   cancer   or   deadly   melanoma   was   described.   Moreover,   by   emphasizing   family 
members and friends’ suffering emotionally and financially by people who get skin cancer as 
well as the possibility of rejection from family members and friends, the ad evoked negative 
consequences on social relationship.
For ad 3 which contains positive message and health risk, “death” fear was described by 
the sentence, “Not using tanning beds and sunbathing can reduce your chance of getting skin 
cancer- deadly melanoma.” Moreover, this ad mentioned the positive consequence of not using 

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