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Direct-to-consumer prescription drug websites for stigmatized illnesses
Unformatted Document Text:  provided alternative treatments except for taking medicine, this was coded as an implied coping effort. For example, if the website had a webpage such as treatment option or journey to improvement, this implied educational efforts of the website to improve the consumer’s coping efforts. In addition, when the website expressed directly a consumer’s testimonial which showed a patient’s coping effort, this was coded as direct coping effort. For example, if the customer said “I have tried to overcome this condition as well as taking medicine,” it was coded as direct coping effort. In visual cues, when an ad depicted a person who was exercising or getting therapy, it was coded as having offset controllability. Recategorization was defined operationally as an inclusive statement considering an individual with an illness as part of the in-group. If a website had the “us” concept or “in-group” concept visually or verbally, this was coded as having recategorization. In textual cues, first, when a website contained the meaning of “we, our, us” or “you’re not alone,” this was coded as recategorization. Second, when there was a verbal expression of inclusion, like “join,” this was coded as recategorization. In visual cues, social context was coded as recategorization following Cline and Young’s (2004) visual cues. Depicting social context can express that boundaries between groups is blurred and an individual with stigma is an in-group member. The concept of “people just like me,” who include neighbors, coworkers, family members, and other people, has an anti-stigma effect (Corrigan and O’Shaughnessy 2007). Social context was defined as a picture in which there are two or more people: family (depicting people from two generations), romance (depicting only two people embracing or gazing at each other), work (reflected in work- related clothing and/or equipment), recreational (relaxing), or other (indeterminate). Coding procedure 15

Authors: Kang, Hannah. and An, Soontae.
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provided alternative treatments except for taking medicine, this was coded as an implied coping 
effort. For example, if the website had a webpage such as treatment option or journey to 
improvement, this implied educational efforts of the website to improve the consumer’s coping 
efforts. In addition, when the website expressed directly a consumer’s testimonial which showed 
a patient’s coping effort, this was coded as direct coping effort. For example, if the customer said 
“I have tried to overcome this condition as well as taking medicine,” it was coded as direct 
coping effort. In visual cues, when an ad depicted a person who was exercising or getting 
therapy, it was coded as having offset controllability. 
Recategorization was defined operationally as an inclusive statement considering an 
individual with an illness as part of the in-group. If a website had the “us” concept or “in-group” 
concept visually or verbally, this was coded as having recategorization. In textual cues, first, 
when a website contained the meaning of “we, our, us” or “you’re not alone,” this was coded as 
recategorization. Second, when there was a verbal expression of inclusion, like “join,” this was 
coded as recategorization. In visual cues, social context was coded as recategorization following 
Cline and Young’s (2004) visual cues. Depicting social context can express that boundaries 
between groups is blurred and an individual with stigma is an in-group member. The concept of 
“people just like me,” who include neighbors, coworkers, family members, and other people, has 
an anti-stigma effect (Corrigan and O’Shaughnessy 2007). Social context was defined as a 
picture in which there are two or more people: family (depicting people from two generations), 
romance (depicting only two people embracing or gazing at each other), work (reflected in work-
related clothing and/or equipment), recreational (relaxing), or other (indeterminate). 
Coding procedure
15


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