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Distinctions in Covering BP Oil Spill Suggest a Maturing Press
Unformatted Document Text:  22 Patrick Daley and Dan O’Neill, “‘Sad is Too Mild a Word’: Press Coverage of the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill,” Journal of Communication 41 (autumn 1991): 42-57. 23 Conrad Smith, “News Sources and Power Elites in News Coverage of the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill,” Journalism Quarterly 70 (summer 1993): 393-403. 24 Harvey Molotch and Marilyn Lester, “Accidental News: The Great Oil Spill as Local Occurrence and National Event,” The American Journal of Sociology 81 (September 1975): 235-260. 25 Lee Wilkins, Shared Vulnerability: The Media and American Perceptions of the Bhopal Disaster (NY: Greenwood Press, 1987); Lee Wilkins, “Bhopal: The Politics of Mediated Risk,” in Bad Tidings: Communication and Catastrophe, ed. Lynne Masel Walters, Lee Wilkins and Tim Walters (Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1989): 21-34. 26 Sharon M. Friedman, Carole M. Gorney and Brenda P. Egolf, “Reporting on Radiation: A Content Analysis of Chernobyl Coverage,” Journal of Communication 37 (summer 1987): 58-67. 27 Sharon M. Friedman, Carole M. Gorney, and Brenda P. Egolf, “Chernobyl Coverage: How the U.S. Media Treated the Nuclear Industry,” Public Understanding of Science 1 (July 1992): 305-323. 28 Rahul Sood, Geoffrey Stockdale, and Everett M. Rogers, “How the News Media Operate in Natural Disasters,” Journal of Communication 37 (summer 1987): 27-41. 29 Penelope Ploughman, “Local Newspaper Roles in the Love Canal Disaster,” Newspaper Research Journal 16 (spring 1995): 56-75. 30 Hongmei Li and Lu Tang, “The Representation of the Chinese Product Crisis in National and Local Newspapers in the United States,” Public Relations Review 35 (September 2009): 219-225. 31 Mark J. Rozell, “Local v. National Press Assessment of Virginia’s 1989 Gubernatorial Campaign,” Polity 24 (autumn 1991): 69-89. 32 Lanier Frush Holt and Lesa Hatley Major, “Frame and Blame: An Analysis of How National and Local Newspapers Framed the Jena Six Controversy,” Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly 87 (autumn/winter 2010): 582-597. 33 C. Kevin Swisher and Stephen D. Reese, “The Smoking and Health Issue in Newspapers: Influence of Regional Economies, the Tobacco Institute and News Objectivity,” Journalism Quarterly 69 (winter 1992): 987-1000. 34 Michael M. Haigh, Michael Bruce, and Elizabeth Craig, “Mad Cow Coverage More Positive in Midwest Papers,” Newspaper Research Journal 29 (winter 2008): 50-62. 35 Jacob Bendix and Carol M. Liebler, “Place, Distance, and Environmental News: Geographic Variation in Newspaper Coverage of the Spotted Owl Conflict,” Annals of the Association of American Geographers 89 (December 1999): 658-676. 36 Although some researchers consider the Washington Post a national newspaper because of its stature and include other major newspapers such as the Los Angeles Times to offer geographic balance, those newspapers’ print editions are not distributed nationally. 37 2009 Editor & Publisher International Year Book (NY: Editor & Publisher, 2009). 38 Alabama papers were the Birmingham News, Dothan Eagle, Press-Register (Mobile), and Advertiser (Montgomery). 39 Florida papers were the Bradenton Herald, Hernando Today (Brooksville), Citrus County Chronicle (Crystal River), Sun-Sentinel (Ford Lauderdale), News-Press (Fort Myers), Northwest Florida Daily News (Fort Walton Beach), Sun (Gainesville), Ledger (Lakeland), Miami Herald, Naples Daily News, Ocala Star-Banner, Orlando Sentinel, News Herald (Panama City), Pensacola News Journal, (Port) Charlotte Sun, Sarasota Herald-Tribune, St. Petersburg Times, Tallahassee Democrat, Tampa Tribune, and News Chief (Winter Haven). 40 Louisiana papers were the Advocate (Baton Rouge), Daily Star (Hammond), Houma Courier, Daily Advertiser (Lafayette), American Press (Lake Charles), Daily Iberian (New Iberia), and Times-Picayune (New Orleans). 41 Mississippi papers were the Sun Herald (Biloxi), Hattiesburg American, Clarion-Ledger (Jackson), Enterprise- Journal (McComb), and Mississippi Press (Pascagoula). 42 Texas papers were the Austin American-Statesman, Beaumont Enterprise, Brazosport Facts (Clute), Courier (Conroe), Corpus Christi Caller-Times, Dallas Morning News, Fort Worth Star-Telegram, Galveston County Daily News, Valley Morning Star (Harlingen), Houston Chronicle, Monitor (McAllen), Port Arthur News, San Antonio Express-News, and Victoria Advocate. 43 Citrus County Chronicle (Crystal River) and News Chief (Winter Haven). 44 That analysis is not part of the research reported here.

Authors: Lewis, Norman., Starr, Walter., Takata, Yukari. and Xie, Qinwei (Vivi).
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22
 Patrick Daley and Dan O’Neill, “‘Sad is Too Mild a Word’: Press Coverage of the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill,” Journal 
of Communication 41 (autumn 1991): 42-57.
23
 Conrad Smith, “News Sources and Power Elites in News Coverage of the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill,” Journalism 
Quarterly 70 (summer 1993): 393-403.
24
 Harvey Molotch and Marilyn Lester, “Accidental News: The Great Oil Spill as Local Occurrence and National 
Event,” The American Journal of Sociology 81 (September 1975): 235-260.
25
 Lee Wilkins, Shared Vulnerability: The Media and American Perceptions of the Bhopal Disaster (NY: Greenwood 
Press, 1987); Lee Wilkins, “Bhopal: The Politics of Mediated Risk,” in Bad Tidings: Communication and Catastrophe
ed. Lynne Masel Walters, Lee Wilkins and Tim Walters (Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1989): 21-34.
26
 Sharon M. Friedman, Carole M. Gorney and Brenda P. Egolf, “Reporting on Radiation: A Content Analysis of 
Chernobyl Coverage,” Journal of Communication 37 (summer 1987): 58-67. 
27
 Sharon M. Friedman, Carole M. Gorney, and Brenda P. Egolf, “Chernobyl Coverage: How the U.S. Media Treated 
the Nuclear Industry,” Public Understanding of Science 1 (July 1992): 305-323.
28
 Rahul Sood, Geoffrey Stockdale, and Everett M. Rogers, “How the News Media Operate in Natural Disasters,” 
Journal of Communication 37 (summer 1987): 27-41.
29
 Penelope Ploughman, “Local Newspaper Roles in the Love Canal Disaster,” Newspaper Research Journal 16 (spring 
1995): 56-75.
30
 Hongmei Li and Lu Tang, “The Representation of the Chinese Product Crisis in National and Local Newspapers in 
the United States,” Public Relations Review 35 (September 2009): 219-225.
31
 Mark J. Rozell, “Local v. National Press Assessment of Virginia’s 1989 Gubernatorial Campaign,” Polity 24 (autumn 
1991): 69-89.
32
 Lanier Frush Holt and Lesa Hatley Major, “Frame and Blame: An Analysis of How National and Local Newspapers 
Framed the Jena Six Controversy,” Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly 87 (autumn/winter 2010): 582-597.
33
 C. Kevin Swisher and Stephen D. Reese, “The Smoking and Health Issue in Newspapers: Influence of Regional 
Economies, the Tobacco Institute and News Objectivity,” Journalism Quarterly 69 (winter 1992): 987-1000.
34
 Michael M. Haigh, Michael Bruce, and Elizabeth Craig, “Mad Cow Coverage More Positive in Midwest Papers,” 
Newspaper Research Journal 29 (winter 2008): 50-62.
35
 Jacob Bendix and Carol M. Liebler, “Place, Distance, and Environmental News: Geographic Variation in Newspaper 
Coverage of the Spotted Owl Conflict,” Annals of the Association of American Geographers 89 (December 1999): 658-
676.
36
 Although some researchers consider the Washington Post a national newspaper because of its stature and include 
other major newspapers such as the Los Angeles Times to offer geographic balance, those newspapers’ print editions are 
not distributed nationally. 
37
 2009 Editor & Publisher International Year Book (NY: Editor & Publisher, 2009).
38
 Alabama papers were the Birmingham NewsDothan EaglePress-Register (Mobile), and Advertiser (Montgomery).
39
 Florida papers were the Bradenton HeraldHernando Today (Brooksville), Citrus County Chronicle (Crystal River), 
Sun-Sentinel (Ford Lauderdale), News-Press (Fort Myers), Northwest Florida Daily News (Fort Walton Beach), Sun 
(Gainesville), Ledger (Lakeland), Miami HeraldNaples Daily NewsOcala Star-BannerOrlando SentinelNews 
Herald
 (Panama City), Pensacola News Journal, (Port) Charlotte SunSarasota Herald-TribuneSt. Petersburg Times
Tallahassee DemocratTampa Tribune, and News Chief (Winter Haven).
40
 Louisiana papers were the Advocate (Baton Rouge), Daily Star (Hammond), Houma CourierDaily Advertiser 
(Lafayette), American Press (Lake Charles), Daily Iberian (New Iberia), and Times-Picayune (New Orleans).
41
 Mississippi papers were the Sun Herald (Biloxi), Hattiesburg AmericanClarion-Ledger (Jackson), Enterprise-
Journal (McComb), and Mississippi Press (Pascagoula). 
42
 Texas papers were the Austin American-StatesmanBeaumont EnterpriseBrazosport Facts (Clute), Courier 
(Conroe), Corpus Christi Caller-TimesDallas Morning NewsFort Worth Star-Telegram, Galveston County Daily  
News
Valley Morning Star (Harlingen), Houston ChronicleMonitor (McAllen), Port Arthur NewsSan Antonio 
Express-News
, and Victoria Advocate.
43
 Citrus County Chronicle (Crystal River) and News Chief (Winter Haven).
44
 That analysis is not part of the research reported here.


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