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Identity fallout: The draining effects of technological and economic change on newspaper journalists
Unformatted Document Text:  IDENTITY FALLOUT 9 To answer the hypotheses and research questions, an online survey was sent to randomly selected journalists working full-time at U.S. daily newspapers in 2010. Journalists were selected from a commercial database with contact information of about 25,000 daily newspaper journalists. To obtain a sample that was representative of the circulation breakdown of mainstream newspapers, journalists were categorized into subsets by circulation size. Surveys were directed at journalists working at daily newspapers with circulations of more than 10,000 because those publications are more likely to have incorporated wide-scale modifications to journalists’ jobs as a result of economic and technological changes. Of the 720 newspapers included in this study, 1.1 percent (n=8) had circulations of more than 500,000; 2.2 percent (n=16) had circulations of 250,001 to 500,000; 8.5 percent (n=61) had circulations of 100,001 to 250,000; 12.2 percent (n=88) had circulations of 50,001 to 100,000; 25.1 percent (n=181) had circulations of 25,001 to 50,000; and 50.8 percent (n=366) had circulations of 10,001 to 25,000. A random sample of a representative percentage of journalists from each circulation group received the online survey. Five thousand invitations were sent out. In total, 967 newspaper journalists completed the survey. The response rate was slightly less than 20 percent (19.3%). This response rate falls within acceptable rates for Web-based surveys; response rates vary from around 17 percent (Sax, Gilmartin & Bryant, 2003) to up to 30 percent (Wimmer & Dominick, 2003). Forty surveys were omitted because the participants indicated they did not meet the criteria. The final sample included 927 newspaper journalists. The central concept in RQ1 was journalists’ job roles, which was based on the

Authors: Hinsley, Amber.
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To answer the hypotheses and research questions, an online survey was sent 
to randomly selected journalists working full-time at U.S. daily newspapers in 2010. 
Journalists were selected from a commercial database with contact information of 
about 25,000 daily newspaper journalists. To obtain a sample that was representative 
of the circulation breakdown of mainstream newspapers, journalists were categorized 
into subsets by circulation size. 
Surveys were directed at journalists working at daily newspapers with 
circulations of more than 10,000 because those publications are more likely to have 
incorporated wide-scale modifications to journalists’ jobs as a result of economic and 
technological changes. Of the 720 newspapers included in this study, 1.1 percent 
(n=8) had circulations of more than 500,000; 2.2 percent (n=16) had circulations of 
250,001 to 500,000; 8.5 percent (n=61) had circulations of 100,001 to 250,000; 12.2 
percent (n=88) had circulations of 50,001 to 100,000; 25.1 percent (n=181) had 
circulations of 25,001 to 50,000; and 50.8 percent (n=366) had circulations of 10,001 
to 25,000. A random sample of a representative percentage of journalists from each 
circulation group received the online survey. Five thousand invitations were sent out.
In total, 967 newspaper journalists completed the survey. The response rate 
was slightly less than 20 percent (19.3%). This response rate falls within acceptable 
rates for Web-based surveys; response rates vary from around 17 percent (Sax, 
Gilmartin & Bryant, 2003) to up to 30 percent (Wimmer & Dominick, 2003). Forty 
surveys were omitted because the participants indicated they did not meet the 
criteria. The final sample included 927 newspaper journalists.
The central concept in RQ1 was journalists’ job roles, which was based on the 

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