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How does Doctor-Patient Communication Differ Based on the Gender of Doctor and the Gender of Patient? An Analysis of Entertainment-Education Based Network Medical Drama Grey’s Anatomy.
Unformatted Document Text:  Doctor-Patient Communication in Grey’s Anatomy 6 Literature Review Effects of entertainment-education programs and related theoretical perspectives For the purpose of this research, the author would like to discuss two important theories regarding E-E: (1) social cognitive theory, and (2) cultivation theory. Social cognitive theory deals with how individuals learn behaviors from observing others performing the behavior in the media, or in other contexts (Bandura, 2001). Similarly, cultivation theory deals with the question of how a positive relationship between television viewing and perception of social reality is established. In this process, viewers develop a view of social reality that is similar to that presented on television (Morgan, Shanahan & Signorielli, 2009). Morgan, Shanahan and Signorielli state that “…the central hypothesis guiding cultivation research is that those who spend more time watching television are more likely to perceive the real world in ways that reflect the most common and recurrent messages of the television world…”(Ibid, p. 34). Media portrayals of health issues affect not only audiences’ perceptions of the incidence and prevalence of health risks, but perceptions about medical professionals and medical treatments as well. Tayal (2003) documented that medical drama viewers expected medical treatments to be like those seen on television. Most of the medical dramas are considered a type of entertainment-education (E-E). According to the E-E scholars, media messages are purposely designed and implemented to entertain and educate audience members (Singhal, Cody, Rogers, & Sabido, 2004; Singhal & Rogers, 1999). The term “entertainment-education” is used in the area of research that examines how narratives delivered in an entertainment format can influence audience members’ real-world knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors about an issue (ibid.). Singhal and Rogers (2002) defined entertainment-education (E-E) as “the intentional placement of educational content in

Authors: Pokhrel, Lok.
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Doctor-Patient Communication in Grey’s Anatomy
 6
Literature Review
Effects of entertainment-education programs and related theoretical perspectives 
For the purpose of this research, the author would like to discuss two important theories 
regarding E-E: (1) social cognitive theory, and (2) cultivation theory. Social cognitive theory 
deals with how individuals learn behaviors from observing others performing the behavior in the 
media, or in other contexts (Bandura, 2001). Similarly, cultivation theory deals with the question 
of how a positive relationship between television viewing and perception of social reality is 
established.  In  this   process,  viewers  develop   a  view  of  social   reality  that  is  similar   to  that 
presented   on   television   (Morgan,   Shanahan   &   Signorielli,   2009).   Morgan,   Shanahan   and 
Signorielli state that “…the central hypothesis guiding cultivation research is that those who 
spend more time watching television are more likely to perceive the real world in ways that 
reflect the most common and recurrent messages of the television world…”(Ibid, p. 34). Media 
portrayals of health issues affect not only audiences’ perceptions of the incidence and prevalence 
of health risks, but perceptions  about medical  professionals and medical  treatments as well. 
Tayal (2003) documented that medical drama viewers expected medical treatments to be like 
those seen on television.
Most of the medical  dramas are considered  a type  of entertainment-education (E-E). 
According to the E-E scholars, media messages are purposely designed and implemented to 
entertain and educate audience members (Singhal, Cody, Rogers, & Sabido, 2004; Singhal & 
Rogers, 1999). The term “entertainment-education” is used in the area of research that examines 
how narratives delivered in an entertainment format can influence audience members’ real-world 
knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors about an issue (ibid.). Singhal and Rogers (2002) defined 
entertainment-education   (E-E)   as   “the   intentional   placement   of   educational   content   in 


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