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International Coverage, Foreign Policy, and National Image: Exploring the Complexities of Media Coverage, Public Opinion, and Presidential Agenda
Unformatted Document Text:  EXPLORING THE COMPLEXITIES 16 public papers and media coverage. As shown in Table 1, results showed strong support for this hypothesis (r = .81, p < .01). H 6 sought to investigate the relationship between countries’ attribute agenda in the presidential public papers and media coverage. The results were mixed. There was no correlation between the positive occurrences of a nation in the presidential public papers and the positive coverage in The New York Times. However, a positive relationship existed between the negative occurrences of a nation in the presidential public papers and the negative coverage in The New York Times. As Table 2 illustrates, a significant positive correlation was found between negative coverage and negative occurrences (r = .64, p < .01). Therefore, H 6 was partially supported. Discussion The present study examined three agendas: the media agenda as determined by coverage in The New York Times, the public agenda as determined by responses to a national survey, and the policy agenda as determined by the presidential public papers. The goals of this study were to investigate if possible correlations existed in terms of salience and valence in media agenda, public agenda, and policy agenda. Results demonstrate support for both first-level and second-level agenda-setting effects. Specifically, the findings of this study raise several interesting theoretical considerations regarding first- and second-level agenda-setting effects. Regarding first-level agenda-setting effects, we found support for the hypothesis that salience of the countries in media coverage leads to increased perceived importance of the

Authors: Zhang, Cui.
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EXPLORING THE COMPLEXITIES
                                      16
public papers and media coverage. As shown in Table 1, results showed strong 
support for this hypothesis (r = .81, < .01). 
H
6
 sought to investigate the relationship between countries’ attribute agenda in 
the presidential public papers and media coverage. The results were mixed. There was 
no correlation between the positive occurrences of a nation in the presidential public 
papers and the positive coverage in The New York Times. However, a positive 
relationship existed between the negative occurrences of a nation in the presidential 
public papers and the negative coverage in The New York Times. As Table 2 illustrates, 
a significant positive correlation was found between negative coverage and negative 
occurrences (r = .64, < .01). Therefore, H
was partially supported. 
Discussion
The present study examined three agendas: the media agenda as determined by 
coverage in The New York Times, the public agenda as determined by responses to a 
national survey, and the policy agenda as determined by the presidential public 
papers. The goals of this study were to investigate if possible correlations existed in 
terms of salience and valence in media agenda, public agenda, and policy agenda. 
Results demonstrate support for both first-level and second-level agenda-setting 
effects. 
Specifically, the findings of this study raise several interesting theoretical 
considerations regarding first- and second-level agenda-setting effects. Regarding 
first-level agenda-setting effects, we found support for the hypothesis that salience of 
the countries in media coverage leads to increased perceived importance of the 


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