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International Coverage, Foreign Policy, and National Image: Exploring the Complexities of Media Coverage, Public Opinion, and Presidential Agenda
Unformatted Document Text:  EXPLORING THE COMPLEXITIES 6 Times and the presidential public papers. Therefore, it is necessary to review the literature of the effects of media influence on public opinion. Although agenda-setting theory has been investigated widely in political communication field, a few attempts have been made to test the hypothesis in other contexts. For example, Carroll and McCombs (2003) argued that the central idea of agenda-setting fits equally well in the field of business communication. In their analysis, major corporations were used as research “objects”. The findings supported agenda-setting effects of business news on the public’s opinions about these corporations. Carroll (2004) tested both fist- and second-level agenda-setting in a business news context. Similarly, employing a triangulation of research methods, Kiousis, Popescu, and Mitrook (2007) also fund empirical evidence of the effects of media coverage and public relations efforts on corporate reputation. In addition, Wanta et al. (2004) made an attempt to translate the agenda-setting theory from its primary area in public affairs to the domain of foreign countries. These studies demonstrate the flexibility and versatility of first-level agenda-setting to address a wide range of issues. Additionally, second-level agenda-setting can provide even greater insights. The Intersection of Media Agenda and Public Agenda Prior research has found that international media coverage has an agenda-setting effect on public opinion regarding foreign nations (McNelly & Izcaray, 1986; Salwen & Matera, 1992). For example, Semetko, Brzinski, Weaver, and Willnat (1992) found a strong relationship between the visibility of foreign countries and public opinion. In

Authors: Zhang, Cui.
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Times and the presidential public papers. Therefore, it is necessary to review the 
literature of the effects of media influence on public opinion. 
Although agenda-setting theory has been investigated widely in political 
communication field, a few attempts have been made to test the hypothesis in other 
contexts. For example, Carroll and McCombs (2003) argued that the central idea of 
agenda-setting fits equally well in the field of business communication. In their 
analysis, major corporations were used as research “objects”. The findings supported 
agenda-setting effects of business news on the public’s opinions about these 
corporations. Carroll (2004) tested both fist- and second-level agenda-setting in a 
business news context. Similarly, employing a triangulation of research methods, 
Kiousis, Popescu, and Mitrook (2007) also fund empirical evidence of the effects of 
media coverage and public relations efforts on corporate reputation. In addition, 
Wanta et al. (2004) made an attempt to translate the agenda-setting theory from its 
primary area in public affairs to the domain of foreign countries. These studies 
demonstrate the flexibility and versatility of first-level agenda-setting to address a 
wide range of issues. Additionally, second-level agenda-setting can provide even 
greater insights.
The Intersection of Media Agenda and Public Agenda
Prior research has found that international media coverage has an agenda-setting 
effect on public opinion regarding foreign nations (McNelly & Izcaray, 1986; Salwen 
& Matera, 1992). For example, Semetko, Brzinski, Weaver, and Willnat (1992) found 
a strong relationship between the visibility of foreign countries and public opinion. In 

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