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Framing in the ‘New Media Environment’: Fox News Channel (FNC) Covers the Bristol Palin Pregnancy
Unformatted Document Text:  meanings of an event or issue into a dominant frame (Carragee and Roefs, 2004; Gamson, 1992; Gitlin, 1980; Gramsci, 1971; Pan and Kosicki, 1993, 2001; Snow and Benford, 1988). As artifacts of this process, centered media frames represent social and political perspectives constructed amid competing meanings, which Gamson and Modigliani (1989) have described as an ‘organizing idea(s).’ Thus, framing is by definition a conservative process where the relationship of reporters and elite sources tends to restrict the degree of change that is likely. This is why Martin and Oshagen (1997) suggest that when framing becomes such a hegemonic process, it ‘limits the range of debate in the news media and occludes the potential for a democratic sphere’ (691). From this, we conclude that when proposed as sole explanations, frames serve as unifying — or ‘centering’—social devices by making some meanings more salient than others (Entman, 1993). Media Ritual in the De-centered Media In conceptualizing the de-centered media, Couldry (2003a) challenges the concept of centered media rituals as a falsely premised construct, albeit one with meaningful material outcomes. As he develops his critique of centered, or ‘functionalist,’ media ritual, Couldry (2003a) argues that the myth of the center is connected to a second myth, the ‘myth of the mediated center,’ which would lead us to believe that ‘‘the media’ has a privileged relationship to

Authors: Durham, Frank.
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meanings of an event or issue into a dominant frame (Carragee and Roefs, 2004; Gamson, 1992; 
Gitlin, 1980; Gramsci, 1971; Pan and Kosicki, 1993, 2001; Snow and Benford, 1988). 
As artifacts of this process, centered media frames represent social and political 
perspectives constructed amid competing meanings, which Gamson and Modigliani (1989) have 
described as an ‘organizing idea(s).’ Thus, framing is by definition a conservative process where 
the relationship of reporters and elite sources tends to restrict the degree of change that is likely. 
This is why Martin and Oshagen (1997) suggest that when framing becomes such a hegemonic 
process, it ‘limits the range of debate in the news media and occludes the potential for a 
democratic sphere’ (691). From this, we conclude that when proposed as sole explanations, 
frames serve as unifying — or ‘centering’—social devices by making some meanings more 
salient than others (Entman, 1993). 
Media Ritual in the De-centered Media 
In conceptualizing the de-centered media, Couldry (2003a) challenges the concept of 
centered media rituals as a falsely premised construct, albeit one with meaningful material 
outcomes. As he develops his critique of centered, or ‘functionalist,’ media ritual, Couldry 
(2003a) argues that the myth of the center is connected to a second myth, the ‘myth of the 
mediated center,’ which would lead us to believe that ‘‘the media’ has a privileged relationship to 

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