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Framing in the ‘New Media Environment’: Fox News Channel (FNC) Covers the Bristol Palin Pregnancy
Unformatted Document Text:  argued that ‘the conservative opinion media work to create an out-group identity for Democrats and liberals and an in-group identity for conservatives’ (30). They describe this as a ‘feedback loop...between Republican leaders and conservative media’ (18). In these terms, FNC has exemplified the political polarization of the media since its inception. In their study of this effect, Iyengar and Hahn (2009) attribute the ideological segmentation of the media to selectivity by audience members who choose their own media outlets, as well as to the diversity of media forms now available. Jamieson and Cappella (2008) elaborate this concept in terms of ‘selective exposure, selective perception, and selective retention’ to describe ‘the process by which we make sense of who we are as political creatures.’ In their terms, this contributes to the reification of the politically homogenous media space, which the authors call an ‘echo chamber’ (75). Against this fragmentation of the contemporary news media Iyengar and Hahn (2009) describe the earlier days of mid-20th century broadcast journalism. The authors recall the cohesive message offered by ideologically constant news outlets: It is no mere coincidence that the trend toward a more divided electorate has occurred simultaneously with the revolution in information technology. Forty years ago, the great majority of Americans got their daily news from one of three network newscasts. These

Authors: Durham, Frank.
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argued that ‘the conservative opinion media work to create an out-group identity for Democrats 
and liberals and an in-group identity for conservatives’ (30). They describe this as a ‘feedback 
loop...between Republican leaders and conservative media’ (18). In these terms, FNC has 
exemplified the political polarization of the media since its inception. 
In their study of this effect, Iyengar and Hahn (2009) attribute the ideological 
segmentation of the media to selectivity by audience members who choose their own media 
outlets, as well as to the diversity of media forms now available. Jamieson and Cappella (2008) 
elaborate this concept in terms of ‘selective exposure, selective perception, and selective 
retention’ to describe ‘the process by which we make sense of who we are as political creatures.’ 
In their terms, this contributes to the reification of the politically homogenous media space, 
which the authors call an ‘echo chamber’ (75).
Against this fragmentation of the contemporary news media Iyengar and Hahn (2009) 
describe the earlier days of mid-20th century broadcast journalism. The authors recall the 
cohesive message offered by ideologically constant news outlets:
It is no mere coincidence that the trend toward a more divided electorate has occurred 
simultaneously with the revolution in information technology. Forty years ago, the great 
majority of Americans got their daily news from one of three network newscasts. These 


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