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Hostile Media or Hostile Source?: Bias perception of Weblog-embedded news
Unformatted Document Text:  HOSTILE PERCEPTION OF WEBLOG-EMBEDDED NEWS Answers to the two questions were highly correlated with each other (r = .53. p < .01) and thus the answers were averaged to comprise the issue position index. Based on the index figures, 22.1% of the participants were in favor of economic growth whereas 77.9% were in favor of equitable distribution. Participants’ position on this issue was later utilized to assign them to either agreeable or disagreeable user comment condition. In addition to this economic policy position, participants were also asked to evaluate a total of eight most well-known print and broadcast news media outlets in the country, two of which were utilized as the source manipulations in the subsequent experiment. The evaluations were carried out by five questions, each measuring general preference, trust, fairness, bias, and information quality. Answers to these five questions were averaged to comprise the source congruency index. A reliability test for this index generated a satisfactory result (Chronbach’s α = .85 for the conservative newspaper; Chronbach’s α = .81 for the liberal newspaper). According to this index, 88.5% of the participants were favorably predisposed to the liberal newspaper and 11.5% were favorably predisposed to the conservative newspaper. Initially, 221 students signed up for the study and 201 of them completed both the pretest and experiment. Among them, 45 participants had neutral opinions on either of the two stimulus newspapers and were excluded from the data set, although they were given extra credit for participation. In addition, 52 participants did not remember the manipulated stimulus newspaper names and thus failed the manipulation check, bringing down the final number of participants to 104. As college students tend to be more liberal than conservative, a large disparity between participants who were in favor of equitable distribution/liberal newspaper and those who favored economic growth/conservative newspaper was predicted, which was confirmed in the pretest. Still, everyone who signed up for the study was allowed to complete his or her participation to 13

Authors: Park, Sung-Yeon., Yun, Gi Woong., Lee, Sooyoung. and Flynn, Mark.
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Answers to the two questions were highly correlated with each other (r = .53. < .01) 
and thus the answers were averaged to comprise the issue position index.  Based on the index 
figures, 22.1% of the participants were in favor of economic growth whereas 77.9% were in 
favor of equitable distribution.  Participants’ position on this issue was later utilized to assign 
them to either agreeable or disagreeable user comment condition.       
In addition to this economic policy position, participants were also asked to evaluate a 
total of eight most well-known print and broadcast news media outlets in the country, two of 
which were utilized as the source manipulations in the subsequent experiment.  The evaluations 
were carried out by five questions, each measuring general preference, trust, fairness, bias, and 
information quality.  Answers to these five questions were averaged to comprise the source 
congruency index.  A reliability test for this index generated a satisfactory result (Chronbach’s α 
= .85 for the conservative newspaper; Chronbach’s α = .81 for the liberal newspaper). 
According to this index, 88.5% of the participants were favorably predisposed to the liberal 
newspaper and 11.5% were favorably predisposed to the conservative newspaper.  
Initially, 221 students signed up for the study and 201 of them completed both the pretest 
and experiment.  Among them, 45 participants had neutral opinions on either of the two stimulus 
newspapers and were excluded from the data set, although they were given extra credit for 
participation.  In addition, 52 participants did not remember the manipulated stimulus newspaper 
names and thus failed the manipulation check, bringing down the final number of participants to 
104.  As college students tend to be more liberal than conservative, a large disparity between 
participants who were in favor of equitable distribution/liberal newspaper and those who favored 
economic growth/conservative newspaper was predicted, which was confirmed in the pretest. 
Still, everyone who signed up for the study was allowed to complete his or her participation to 

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