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Hostile Media or Hostile Source?: Bias perception of Weblog-embedded news
Unformatted Document Text:  HOSTILE PERCEPTION OF WEBLOG-EMBEDDED NEWS quality of argument. They were subsequently judged to be equivalent in those aspects by a panel of graduate students. Measurement Perceived bias of a blog-embedded news story. This variable was measured by asking two questions: “Was the analysis of national budget in the article strictly neutral, or was it biased in favor of one side or the other in the debate of economic growth vs. equitable distribution?”; “Did you think the journalist responsible for the article was strictly neutral, or was the person biased in favor of one side or the other in the debate of economic growth vs. equitable distribution?” Answers to these questions were obtained on a 11-point scale with three anchor points, -5, strongly biased in favor of equitable distribution, 0, strictly neutral, and +5, strongly biased in favor of economic growth. The two answers were highly correlated (r = .92) and thus averaged to comprise a perceived bias index. Perceived reach. The news article’s reach was assessed with one question: “What percentage of the adult population in our society do you think might have read the news story on national budget?” Answers were captured on an 11-point scale starting from -5, 0%, to 5, 90- 100%, with 10% incrementals. Perceived influence on others. This variable was measured by two questions. One question was concerned with the direction of influence: “Do you think the news article on national budget influenced its readers to support either economic growth or equitable distribution?” An 11-point scale was employed to assess whether the news article made other readers support economic growth (-5), support neither side (0), or support equitable distribution (+5) and the scores were later reverse coded. The other question measured the perceived strength of the influence: “How much do you think the news article influenced its readers?” The 16

Authors: Park, Sung-Yeon., Yun, Gi Woong., Lee, Sooyoung. and Flynn, Mark.
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HOSTILE PERCEPTION OF WEBLOG-EMBEDDED NEWS
quality of argument.  They were subsequently judged to be equivalent in those aspects by a panel 
of graduate students. 
Measurement
Perceived bias of a blog-embedded news story.  This variable was measured by asking 
two questions: “Was the analysis of national budget in the article strictly neutral, or was it biased 
in favor of one side or the other in the debate of economic growth vs. equitable distribution?”; 
“Did you think the journalist responsible for the article was strictly neutral, or was the person 
biased in favor of one side or the other in the debate of economic growth vs. equitable 
distribution?”  Answers to these questions were obtained on a 11-point scale with three anchor 
points, -5, strongly biased in favor of equitable distribution, 0, strictly neutral, and +5, strongly 
biased in favor of economic growth.  The two answers were highly correlated (= .92) and thus 
averaged to comprise a perceived bias index. 
Perceived reach.  The news article’s reach was assessed with one question: “What 
percentage of the adult population in our society do you think might have read the news story on 
national budget?”  Answers were captured on an 11-point scale starting from -5, 0%, to 5, 90-
100%, with 10% incrementals. 
Perceived influence on others.  This variable was measured by two questions.  One 
question was concerned with the direction of influence: “Do you think the news article on 
national budget influenced its readers to support either economic growth or equitable 
distribution?”  An 11-point scale was employed to assess whether the news article made other 
readers support economic growth (-5), support neither side (0), or support equitable distribution 
(+5) and the scores were later reverse coded.  The other question measured the perceived 
strength of the influence: “How much do you think the news article influenced its readers?”  The 
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