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Hostile Media or Hostile Source?: Bias perception of Weblog-embedded news
Unformatted Document Text:  HOSTILE PERCEPTION OF WEBLOG-EMBEDDED NEWS Perception of media bias has often been examined under the framework of the hostile media phenomenon, a perceptual bias of partisans to assess reasonably balanced media coverage of a controversial issue as biased against their issue positions (Vallone, Ross, & Lepper, 1985). What is new about the current and a few previous hostile media effect studies is the partisan nature of the media (Ariyanto, Hornsey, & Gallois, 2007; Arpan & Raney, 2003; Gunther, Miller, & Liebhart, 2009). Whereas most existing hostile media effect studies examined the perceptual bias in the context of ostensibly neutral, mainstream media, a new development in the hostile media research brings attention to the bias perception of media that are perceived to have an inherently partisan slant. The current study is designed to explore bias perceptions of Weblog-embedded news in an experimental setting. On a blog, partisans are exposed to a news article presented to have originated from a media source either congruent or incongruent to their general political orientation, followed by user comments that were either agreeable or disagreeable in terms of their position on the particular issue. Subsequent measurements of perceived bias, reach, and influence of the news story are expected to widen our understanding of the hostile media effect in this new age of partisan news sources obliterating the boundary between the online and offline worlds. The Source Effect in the Hostile Media Phenomenon For more than two decades, much progress has been made in the hostile media effect research. The perceptual phenomenon has been observed on various issues in both broadcast and print media (e.g., Arpan & Raney, 2003; Schmitt, Gunther, & Liebhart, 200; Vallone, Ross, & Lepper, 1985). The concept of hostile media perception has also been expanded to incorporate “relative hostile media perception,” a differential perception of bias in a clearly slanted message 3

Authors: Park, Sung-Yeon., Yun, Gi Woong., Lee, Sooyoung. and Flynn, Mark.
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HOSTILE PERCEPTION OF WEBLOG-EMBEDDED NEWS
Perception of media bias has often been examined under the framework of the hostile 
media phenomenon, a perceptual bias of partisans to assess reasonably balanced media coverage 
of a controversial issue as biased against their issue positions (Vallone, Ross, & Lepper, 1985). 
What is new about the current and a few previous hostile media effect studies is the partisan 
nature of the media (Ariyanto, Hornsey, & Gallois, 2007; Arpan & Raney, 2003; Gunther, 
Miller, & Liebhart, 2009).  Whereas most existing hostile media effect studies examined the 
perceptual bias in the context of ostensibly neutral, mainstream media, a new development in the 
hostile media research brings attention to the bias perception of media that are perceived to have 
an inherently partisan slant.
The current study is designed to explore bias perceptions of Weblog-embedded news in 
an experimental setting.  On a blog, partisans are exposed to a news article presented to have 
originated from a media source either congruent or incongruent to their general political 
orientation, followed by user comments that were either agreeable or disagreeable in terms of 
their position on the particular issue.  Subsequent measurements of perceived bias, reach, and 
influence of the news story are expected to widen our understanding of the hostile media effect 
in this new age of partisan news sources obliterating the boundary between the online and offline 
worlds. 
The Source Effect in the Hostile Media Phenomenon
For more than two decades, much progress has been made in the hostile media effect 
research.  The perceptual phenomenon has been observed on various issues in both broadcast and 
print media (e.g., Arpan & Raney, 2003; Schmitt, Gunther, & Liebhart, 200; Vallone, Ross, & 
Lepper, 1985).  The concept of hostile media perception has also been expanded to incorporate 
“relative hostile media perception,” a differential perception of bias in a clearly slanted message 
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