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Job Satisfaction Among Minority Advertising Professionals: An Update
Unformatted Document Text:  Minority Ad Professionals living and would require relocation. Young minority candidates are less likely than whites to have parents who can afford to help them in the early years of their careers (Sanders, 2007a). Further, the best and brightest minority graduates often are lured away from advertising to better paying jobs at client companies, as well as other fields such as finance and marketing (Kendrick, 2000). The industry may also be struggling with a knowledge gap: many minority students who are potential advertising stars may not even think of advertising as a field relevant to them (Bush, 2011; Culp, 2007; Zerbinos & Clanton, 1993). Zerbinos and Clanton (1993) and Culp (2007) have also stressed a dearth of role models as a possible reason for lower numbers of minority employees. Bill Gray, CEO of Ogilvy North America, told Advertising Age that “you’ve got have senior, visible minorities who can act as validation that the industry has opportunities” (Sanders, 2007a). According to many agency human resource personnel, “hiring isn’t the problem – retention is.” (Bush, 2011; Neff, 1998; B. Rozman, personal communication, Jan. 18, 2007;). Talented minority candidates may not stay in the industry and hiring at mid- and senior-level positions is very difficult (Interassociation, 1990; Regan & Shin, 1988). Obstacles for mid- and upper-level hires generally are centered on culture and networking -- minorities do not always feel welcome in the business because there are so few of them (Bush, 2011; Sanders 2007b). When hiring at the mid- to upper- level, employers are most closely looking for experience, regardless of race, which still marginalizes minorities due to their low numbers at the entry level and shorter average tenures in the profession (Interassociation, 1990). The American Advertising Federation (AAF) attempted to address the diversity hiring issue more than 15 years ago. In response to industry pressure to bring top 6

Authors: Fullerton, Jami. and kendrick, alice.
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Minority Ad Professionals
living and would require relocation.  Young minority candidates are less likely than 
whites to have parents who can afford to help them in the early years of their careers 
(Sanders, 2007a).   Further, the best and brightest minority graduates often are lured away 
from advertising to better paying jobs at client companies, as well as other fields such as 
finance and marketing (Kendrick, 2000). The industry may also be struggling with a 
knowledge gap: many minority students who are potential advertising stars may not even 
think of advertising as a field relevant to them (Bush, 2011; Culp, 2007; Zerbinos & 
Clanton, 1993).  Zerbinos and Clanton (1993) and Culp (2007) have also stressed a dearth 
of role models as a possible reason for lower numbers of minority employees. Bill Gray, 
CEO of Ogilvy North America, told Advertising Age that “you’ve got have senior, visible 
minorities who can act as validation that the industry has opportunities” (Sanders, 2007a).
According to many agency human resource personnel, “hiring isn’t the problem – 
retention is.” (Bush, 2011; Neff, 1998; B. Rozman, personal communication, Jan. 18, 
2007;).  Talented minority candidates may not stay in the industry and hiring at mid- and 
senior-level positions is very difficult (Interassociation, 1990; Regan & Shin, 1988). 
Obstacles for mid- and upper-level hires generally are centered on culture and networking 
-- minorities do not always feel welcome in the business because there are so few of them 
(Bush, 2011; Sanders 2007b). When hiring at the mid- to upper- level, employers are 
most closely looking for experience, regardless of race, which still marginalizes 
minorities due to their low numbers at the entry level and shorter average tenures in the 
profession (Interassociation, 1990). 
The American Advertising Federation (AAF) attempted to address the diversity 
hiring issue more than 15 years ago.  In response to industry pressure to bring top 

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