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Job Satisfaction Among Minority Advertising Professionals: An Update
Unformatted Document Text:  Minority Ad Professionals not a determinant in job satisfaction, but was a major dissatisfier along with poor company policy, interpersonal relations and working conditions. There are many definitions of job satisfaction, but it is generally defined as the level of satisfaction that individuals have toward their work and their employers. Baron (1983) defined job satisfaction as “attitudes held by employees about their work” and explained that it is related to how content employees are with their positions, their work conditions and how they are treated relative to others in the company. Baron’s definition has been used in other studies of job satisfaction among advertising professionals (Pokrywczynski & Crowley, 1997a) including the 2006 survey (Fullerton, Kendrick & Fraizer, 2007) that is used for comparison in this study. A more concise and reliable scale of job satisfaction was used in the current study. The 5-item scale was adapted from the work of Wright and Cropanzano (1998), and was used by Lund (2003) in a study of organizational culture and job satisfaction among marketing professionals. Studies of job satisfaction among minority workers have yielded mixed results. For example, studies measuring the satisfaction of black versus white workers showed black workers more satisfied than whites among blue-collar employees, sailors, patrol officers and white-collar workers. In the military, minorities and women appear to be happiest with the service (Kliff, 2008). Other studies of CPAs, hospital clerks and nurses reported white employees to be more satisfied (Friday, Moss & Friday, 2003). A study of minority and female faculty (Olsen, Maple & Stage, 1995) reported race had little impact on job satisfaction as compared with other variables such as gender, rank and academic discipline. A meta-analysis of 21 studies and 10,000 employees showed that race was not a significant factor in job satisfaction (Brush, Moch & Pooyan, 8

Authors: Fullerton, Jami. and kendrick, alice.
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Minority Ad Professionals
not a determinant in job satisfaction, but was a major dissatisfier along with poor 
company policy, interpersonal relations and working conditions. 
There are many definitions of job satisfaction, but it is generally defined as the 
level of satisfaction that individuals have toward their work and their employers. Baron 
(1983) defined job satisfaction as “attitudes held by employees about their work” and 
explained that it is related to how content employees are with their positions, their work 
conditions and how they are treated relative to others in the company.  Baron’s definition 
has been used in other studies of job satisfaction among advertising professionals 
(Pokrywczynski & Crowley, 1997a) including the 2006 survey (Fullerton, Kendrick & 
Fraizer, 2007) that is used for comparison in this study.  A more concise and reliable 
scale of job satisfaction was used in the current study.  The 5-item scale was adapted 
from the work of Wright and Cropanzano (1998), and was used by Lund (2003) in a 
study of organizational culture and job satisfaction among marketing professionals.
Studies of job satisfaction among minority workers have yielded mixed results. 
For example, studies measuring the satisfaction of black versus white workers showed 
black workers more satisfied than whites among blue-collar employees, sailors, patrol 
officers and white-collar workers.  In the military, minorities and women appear to be 
happiest with the service (Kliff, 2008). Other studies of CPAs, hospital clerks and nurses 
reported white employees to be more satisfied (Friday, Moss & Friday, 2003).
 A study of minority and female faculty (Olsen, Maple & Stage, 1995) reported 
race had little impact on job satisfaction as compared with other variables such as gender, 
rank and academic discipline.  A meta-analysis of 21 studies and 10,000 employees 
showed that race was not a significant factor in job satisfaction (Brush, Moch & Pooyan, 

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