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Loss Aversion and Regulatory Focus Effects in the Absence of Numbers: Qualitatively Framing Equivalent Messages on Food Labels
Unformatted Document Text:  QUALITATIVELY FRAMING EQUIVALENT MESSAGES ON FOOD LABELS another regulatory focus scale (e.g., Lockwood, Jordan, & Kunda, 2002) would prove more reliable. Recommendations for Future Research From a theoretical perspective, more research needs to be done examining the effects of gains versus nonlosses. This study attempted to further some of the previous research in that area (Idson et al., 2004; Liberman et al., 2005), but perhaps due to the qualitative nature of the frames and the nature of the application (food product), did not find asymmetry in the attitudinal reactions to gains versus nonlosses. Researchers in these theoretical areas should consider future studies that attempt to manipulate gains and nonlosses qualitatively to determine if biases are minimized as a result. The finding that regulatory focus did not influence attitudinal response to gain- or nonloss-framed claims should be supplemented with using regulatory focus priming to determine potential effects of this cognitive style in combination with the use of a more reliable measure for regulatory focus (e.g., Lockwood et al., 2002). The manipulations of nonloss and gain messages in future studies should include terms like “reduce” and “improve” to more strongly suggest a reference point that is moved toward or away from to determine if the biases of loss aversion and regulatory focus fit effect are subsequently induced. The present study held several variables consistent to determine the effect of the differently framed production labeling claims on attitudes. Additional manipulations of variables such as product type, price, brand, and other packaging characteristics would be beneficial to marketers and may produce different attitudinal effects.

Authors: Abrams, Katie.
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QUALITATIVELY  FRAMING  EQUIVALENT  MESSAGES  ON  FOOD  LABELS
another regulatory focus scale (e.g., Lockwood, Jordan, & Kunda, 2002) would prove more 
reliable. 
Recommendations for Future Research
From a theoretical perspective, more research needs to be done examining the effects of 
gains versus nonlosses. This study attempted to further some of the previous research in that area 
(Idson et al., 2004; Liberman et al., 2005), but perhaps due to the qualitative nature of the frames 
and the nature of the application (food product), did not find asymmetry in the attitudinal 
reactions to gains versus nonlosses. Researchers in these theoretical areas should consider future 
studies that attempt to manipulate gains and nonlosses qualitatively to determine if biases are 
minimized as a result. The finding that regulatory focus did not influence attitudinal response to 
gain- or nonloss-framed claims should be supplemented with using regulatory focus priming to 
determine potential effects of this cognitive style in combination with the use of a more reliable 
measure for regulatory focus (e.g., Lockwood et al., 2002).
The manipulations of nonloss and gain messages in future studies should include terms like 
“reduce” and “improve” to more strongly suggest a reference point that is moved toward or away 
from to determine if the biases of loss aversion and regulatory focus fit effect are subsequently 
induced. 
The present study held several variables consistent to determine the effect of the differently 
framed production labeling claims on attitudes. Additional manipulations of variables such as 
product type, price, brand, and other packaging characteristics would be beneficial to marketers 
and may produce different attitudinal effects. 


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