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Loss Aversion and Regulatory Focus Effects in the Absence of Numbers: Qualitatively Framing Equivalent Messages on Food Labels
Unformatted Document Text:  QUALITATIVELY FRAMING EQUIVALENT MESSAGES ON FOOD LABELS powerful using qualitatively framed information? Examining effects of qualitatively framing information as nonloss and gain are important because not all messages can be communicated quantitatively. This study examined these areas by comparing the persuasive effects of qualitatively framed gain and nonloss messages. Determining Framing Effects through Attitude Framing effects can be measured through a variety of outcomes, but preferences (choices or decisions) and attitudes are common assessments through which to determine the effect. The concept of a preference is, in some ways, the counterpart in economics to the concept of an attitude in psychology, “but the logic of attitudes and the logic of preferences are quite different” (Kahneman & Sugden, 2005, p. 164). Preferences are subjective, but their logical structure is objective. If a consumer prefers a ground beef product that is 25% fat, they should prefer a product that is 75% lean. Attitudes are not objective in structure; therefore, a consumer might have a negative attitude toward a ground beef product that is 25% fat but a positive attitude toward one that is 75% lean. The occurrence of framing effects does not violate the logic of attitudes as it does the logic of preference (Kahneman & Sugden, 2005). Preferences are best measured by making people choose between two options, while attitudes are best measured by affective responses to a single object. Attitudes have a reasonable amount of stability. “This stability of attitudes lends some stability to the choices that people make, but attitudes are also susceptible to a lot of manipulations that are not allowed to have any effect in a rational theory of preferences” (Kahneman & Sugden, 2005, p. 165). Attitudes, therefore, are susceptible to framing effects. Researchers have explained that the framing of information affects the hedonic reaction people have toward the information (Brenner et al., 2007; Liberman et al., 2005). Because attitudes are

Authors: Abrams, Katie.
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powerful using qualitatively framed information? Examining effects of qualitatively framing 
information as nonloss and gain are important because not all messages can be communicated 
quantitatively. This study examined these areas by comparing the persuasive effects of 
qualitatively framed gain and nonloss messages.
Determining Framing Effects through Attitude
Framing effects can be measured through a variety of outcomes, but preferences (choices 
or decisions) and attitudes are common assessments through which to determine the effect. The 
concept of a preference is, in some ways, the counterpart in economics to the concept of an 
attitude in psychology, “but the logic of attitudes and the logic of preferences are quite different” 
(Kahneman & Sugden, 2005, p. 164). Preferences are subjective, but their logical structure is 
objective. If a consumer prefers a ground beef product that is 25% fat, they should prefer a 
product that is 75% lean. Attitudes are not objective in structure; therefore, a consumer might 
have a negative attitude toward a ground beef product that is 25% fat but a positive attitude 
toward one that is 75% lean. The occurrence of framing effects does not violate the logic of 
attitudes as it does the logic of preference (Kahneman & Sugden, 2005). Preferences are best 
measured by making people choose between two options, while attitudes are best measured by 
affective responses to a single object. 
Attitudes have a reasonable amount of stability. “This stability of attitudes lends some 
stability to the choices that people make, but attitudes are also susceptible to a lot of 
manipulations that are not allowed to have any effect in a rational theory of preferences” 
(Kahneman & Sugden, 2005, p. 165). Attitudes, therefore, are susceptible to framing effects. 
Researchers have explained that the framing of information affects the hedonic reaction people 
have toward the information (Brenner et al., 2007; Liberman et al., 2005). Because attitudes are 

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