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The Impact of Contradicting Media Messages on Political Perceptions: The Case of a Partisan Dispute in Korea over Lifting Ban on U.S. Beef Imports
Unformatted Document Text:  THE IMPACT OF CONFLICTING FRAMES 12 those who used all of the media outlets were included in the sample. After excluding unanswered cases on a listwise basis, the online survey elicited 275 usable responses, or a response rate of 85%. When it comes to the demographic profiles of the respondents, the number of male respondents (N = 179) was larger than that of female participants (N = 96). The average age was about 35 (SD = 10.8); respondents in their 20s constituted a majority, followed by people in their 30s, suggesting that most of the participants in the 20-to-29 bracket were in their late 20s. More than two-thirds of the respondents had a Bachelor’s degree or higher and about half of the respondents’ annual incomes were in the range of 2 to 4 million Korean Won. Measures Exposure to frames of different types of media outlets was measured by asking people to indicate how many days in average they watched (read) national television network news (newspapers and online content) about the beef issue. To measure evaluation of the beef issue, the most contentious aspects of the issue were selected based on journalists’ analyses (Huh & Lee, 2008; Lee & Cho, 2008). Specifically, respondents were asked to rate their opinions on a 7- point Likert-type scale about a) whether the timing of the resumption was appropriate or not, b) whether beef from cattle over 30 months of age without specific risk materials (SRM) is harmful or not, c) whether the agreement regarding the quarantine sovereignty is sufficient or not, d) whether the beef from cattle less than 30 months of age, with some SRMs is harmful or not, e) whether extra measures regarding the quarantine sovereignty are sufficient or not, and f) whether the rumors about the mad cow disease are convincing or not. A principal component analysis and reliability test on those variables shows that only one component can be reliably constructed from the data ( α = .87). Therefore, they were averaged to construct a single index, where higher

Authors: Lee, ByungGu.
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those who used all of the media outlets were included in the sample. After excluding unanswered 
cases on a listwise basis, the online survey elicited 275 usable responses, or a response rate of 
When it comes to the demographic profiles of the respondents, the number of male 
respondents (N = 179) was larger than that of female participants (N = 96). The average age was 
about 35 (SD = 10.8); respondents in their 20s constituted a majority, followed by people in their 
30s, suggesting that most of the participants in the 20-to-29 bracket were in their late 20s. More 
than two-thirds of the respondents had a Bachelor’s degree or higher and about half of the 
respondents’ annual incomes were in the range of 2 to 4 million Korean Won. 
Exposure to frames of different types of media outlets was measured by asking people to 
indicate how many days in average they watched (read) national television network news 
(newspapers and online content) about the beef issue. To measure evaluation of the beef issue, 
the most contentious aspects of the issue were selected based on journalists’ analyses (Huh & 
Lee, 2008; Lee & Cho, 2008). Specifically, respondents were asked to rate their opinions on a 7-
point Likert-type scale about a) whether the timing of the resumption was appropriate or not, b) 
whether beef from cattle over 30 months of age without specific risk materials (SRM) is harmful 
or not, c) whether the agreement regarding the quarantine sovereignty is sufficient or not, d) 
whether the beef from cattle less than 30 months of age, with some SRMs is harmful or not, e) 
whether extra measures regarding the quarantine sovereignty are sufficient or not, and f) whether 
the rumors about the mad cow disease are convincing or not. A principal component analysis and 
reliability test on those variables shows that only one component can be reliably constructed 
from the data (
α = .87). Therefore, they were averaged to construct a single index, where higher 

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