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The Impact of Contradicting Media Messages on Political Perceptions: The Case of a Partisan Dispute in Korea over Lifting Ban on U.S. Beef Imports
Unformatted Document Text:  THE IMPACT OF CONFLICTING FRAMES 13 values indicate better evaluation of the issue. For perceived responsibility, respondents were asked to indicate their positions about the statement that “The government in power was responsible for the aftermath of the resumption of U.S. beef import” on a 7-point Likert scale ranging from strongly disagree to strongly agree. For dependent variables, trust in government was gauged with a modified American National Election Studies measurement set (Oh & Park, 2002). The measurement is comprised of two dimensions–ethics and performance. For performance, the following questions were asked: a) the government in power has the expertise to perform its duties, b) the government in power is responsive enough to the demands of the public, c) the government in power does not waste money we pay in taxes, and d) the government in power performs its duties efficiently. For the ethics dimension, the survey questions were: a) the government in power does not act immorally, b) the government in power does not lie to the public and c) the government in power has integrity. All of the items were rated on a 7-point Likert-type scale ranging from strongly disagree to strongly agree. Based on the results of principal component analysis and subsequent reliability test, which reliably extracted only one component from the seven indicators (α = .91), they were averaged to construct a single index, where higher values indicate more trust in government. Finally, presidential approval was measured by asking, “Do you (dis)approve of the president?” with a 7-point scale from strongly disapprove to strongly approve. Results To investigate framing effects in a competitive environment (RQ1), multiple regression analysis was conducted. Specifically, presidential approval and trust in government were regressed on exposure to conflicting frame. The results show that none of the frames significantly influenced political perceptions (columns under heading RQ1 in Table 1). This

Authors: Lee, ByungGu.
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THE IMPACT OF CONFLICTING FRAMES   
      13
values indicate better evaluation of the issue. For perceived responsibility, respondents were 
asked to indicate their positions about the statement that “The government in power was 
responsible for 
the aftermath of the resumption of U.S. beef import” on a 7-point Likert 
scale ranging from strongly disagree to strongly agree
For dependent variables, trust in government was gauged with a modified American 
National Election Studies measurement set (Oh & Park, 2002). The measurement is comprised of 
two dimensions–ethics and performance. For performance, the following questions were asked: 
a) the government in power has the expertise to perform its duties, b) the government in power is 
responsive enough to the demands of the public, c) the government in power does not waste 
money we pay in taxes, and d) the government in power performs its duties efficiently. For the 
ethics dimension, the survey questions were: a) the government in power does not act immorally, 
b) the government in power does not lie to the public and c) the government in power has 
integrity. All of the items were rated on a 7-point Likert-type scale ranging from strongly 
disagree to strongly agree. Based on the results of principal component analysis and subsequent 
reliability test, which reliably extracted only one component from the seven indicators (α = .91), 
they were averaged to construct a single index, where higher values indicate more trust in 
government. Finally, presidential approval was measured by asking, “Do you (dis)approve of the 
president?” with a 7-point scale from strongly disapprove to strongly approve
Results
To investigate framing effects in a competitive environment (RQ1), multiple regression 
analysis was conducted. Specifically, presidential approval and trust in government were 
regressed on exposure to conflicting frame. The results show that none of the frames 
significantly influenced political perceptions (columns under heading RQ1 in Table 1). This 


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