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The Impact of Contradicting Media Messages on Political Perceptions: The Case of a Partisan Dispute in Korea over Lifting Ban on U.S. Beef Imports
Unformatted Document Text:  THE IMPACT OF CONFLICTING FRAMES 16 The results add support to the findings that framing effects are not robust when audience receives heterogeneous frames . One obvious explanation for this null result is that, as Chong and Druckman (2008) point out, citizens were “pulled away from their value-congruent position” (p. 650) to the point where the sum of framing effects equals to zero. That is, inadvertent but unavoidable exposure to disagreeing information is capable of counteracting the influence of value-supportive information on forming political evaluations. Another possible explanation about this null result is that the impact of media frames on political evaluations was fully mediated by beef policy satisfaction. That is, because the beef policy was considered the most important issue at that time, it is plausible to hypothesize that citizens based their attitudes toward the government on their own evaluations of that policy, which in turn had been shaped in large part by news coverage. In order to test this hypothesis, a mediation model was tested. The results show that media frames predicted neither beef policy evaluation nor political evaluations. 2 Specifically, since none of the predictors (i.e., media frames) significantly influenced the mediator (i.e., beef policy satisfaction) and the outcome variables (i.e., political evaluations), the idea that framing effects were fully mediated by policy satisfaction was not supported. Also possible is that the timing of survey implementation may be inappropriate to properly capture framing effects. In fact, the television investigative program that pointed out possible problems related to the resumption of U.S. beef import was aired 2 For TV, β Presidential Approval = –.003, ns, β Trust in Government = –.040, ns, β Beef Evaluation = –.067, ns; For newspaper, β Presidential Approval = –.023, ns, β Trust in Government = –.066, ns, β Beef Evaluation = –.070, ns; For Internet, β Presidential Approval = –.057, ns, β Trust in Government = –.007, ns, β Beef Evaluation = –.061, ns.

Authors: Lee, ByungGu.
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THE IMPACT OF CONFLICTING FRAMES   
      16
The results add support to the findings that framing effects are not robust 
when audience receives heterogeneous frames . One obvious explanation for this null 
result is that, as Chong and Druckman (2008) point out, citizens were “pulled away 
from their value-congruent position” (p. 650) to the point where the sum of framing 
effects equals to zero. That is, inadvertent but unavoidable exposure to disagreeing 
information is capable of counteracting the influence of value-supportive information 
on forming political evaluations. 
Another possible explanation about this null result is that the impact of media 
frames on political evaluations was fully mediated by beef policy satisfaction. That is, 
because the beef policy was considered the most important issue at that time, it is 
plausible to hypothesize that citizens based their attitudes toward the government on 
their own evaluations of that policy, which in turn had been shaped in large part by 
news coverage. In order to test this hypothesis, a mediation model was tested. The 
results show that media frames predicted neither beef policy evaluation nor political 
evaluations.
 Specifically, since none of the predictors (i.e., media frames) 
significantly influenced the mediator (i.e., beef policy satisfaction) and the outcome 
variables (i.e., political evaluations), the idea that framing effects were fully mediated 
by policy satisfaction was not supported. 
Also possible is that the timing of survey implementation may be inappropriate 
to properly capture framing effects. In fact, the television investigative program that 
pointed out possible problems related to the resumption of U.S. beef import was aired 
2
 For TV, β
Presidential Approval
 = –.003, nsβ
Trust in Government
 =  –.040, nsβ
Beef Evaluation 
=  –.067, ns; For newspaper, 
β
Presidential Approval
 = –.023, nsβ
Trust in Government
 =  –.066, nsβ
Beef Evaluation 
=  –.070, ns; For Internet, β
Presidential  
Approval
 = –.057, nsβ
Trust in Government
 =  –.007, nsβ
Beef Evaluation 
=  –.061, ns.


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