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The Impact of Contradicting Media Messages on Political Perceptions: The Case of a Partisan Dispute in Korea over Lifting Ban on U.S. Beef Imports
Unformatted Document Text:  THE IMPACT OF CONFLICTING FRAMES 3 The Impact of Contradicting Media Messages on Political Perceptions: The Case of a Partisan Dispute in Korea over Lifting Ban on U.S. Beef Imports Gone are the days when news media adhered to neutrality, providing “point- counterpoint” news coverage . Seeking economic incentives, news organizations have begun catering to audience’s political preferences as best exemplified by Fox and MSNBC. Although one would immediately think of media polarization as the trend of ideological clashes within a certain media category as seen in the case of FOX vs. MSNBC in the cable television news category, this may not always be the case. That is, under certain circumstances, it is possible that one type of media outlets is predominantly leaning toward a certain perspective, while the other subscribes to the opposite notion. For instance, with regard to the revision of media law to allow newspaper companies to own and operate television networks, existing television networks and newspaper companies would deliver sharply opposing opinions, which in turn influence their audiences’ judgments about the issue in question. Although, admittedly, this arrangement may not be very commonly observed, such condition is worthy of scholarly attention in that, once it transpires, it will provide a good opportunity to investigate the extent to which contradicting frames affect popular evaluations outside the laboratory. Indeed, Chong and Druckman point out that no previous research has dealt with competitive conditions in which conflicting frames compete with each other in shaping public perceptions, even though citizens frequently experience such competition in their everyday life. In addition, taking advantage of an actual event is beneficial in determining the exact magnitude of framing effects, considering the criticism that the robustness of framing effects is due in large part to the excessive reliance on experimental methods to yield statistically significant results and overrepresentations of those results in journals . Moreover, studying the

Authors: Lee, ByungGu.
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The Impact of Contradicting Media Messages on Political Perceptions: 
The Case of a Partisan Dispute in Korea over Lifting Ban on U.S. Beef Imports
Gone are the days when news media adhered to neutrality, providing “point-
counterpoint” news coverage . Seeking economic incentives, news organizations have begun 
catering to audience’s political preferences  as best exemplified by Fox and MSNBC. Although 
one would immediately think of media polarization as the trend of ideological clashes within a 
certain media category as seen in the case of FOX vs. MSNBC in the cable television news 
category, this may not always be the case. That is, under certain circumstances, it is possible that 
one type of media outlets is predominantly leaning toward a certain perspective, while the other 
subscribes to the opposite notion. For instance, with regard to the revision of media law to allow 
newspaper companies to own and operate television networks, existing television networks and 
newspaper companies would deliver sharply opposing opinions, which in turn influence their 
audiences’ judgments about the issue in question.
Although, admittedly, this arrangement may not be very commonly observed, such 
condition is worthy of scholarly attention in that, once it transpires, it will provide a good 
opportunity to investigate the extent to which contradicting frames affect popular evaluations 
outside the laboratory. Indeed, Chong and Druckman  point out that no previous research has 
dealt with competitive conditions in which conflicting frames compete with each other in 
shaping public perceptions, even though citizens frequently experience such competition in their 
everyday life. In addition, taking advantage of an actual event is beneficial in determining the 
exact magnitude of framing effects, considering the criticism that the robustness of framing 
effects is due in large part to the excessive reliance on experimental methods to yield statistically 
significant results and overrepresentations of those results in journals . Moreover, studying the 

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