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The Impact of Contradicting Media Messages on Political Perceptions: The Case of a Partisan Dispute in Korea over Lifting Ban on U.S. Beef Imports
Unformatted Document Text:  THE IMPACT OF CONFLICTING FRAMES 6 The political fallout was enormous. The President and the relevant Cabinet members made apologies for the decision to import U.S. beef from old cattle. The President also made a public announcement that he would overhaul his presidential senior secretaries and the Cabinet. In addition, the government was forced to re-negotiate with the United States to demand stronger sanitary conditions in its beef. I proposed that the case described above is suitable for testing the impact of contradicting frames on political perceptions in a real world situation, given the natural experiment setting that the tone of television news coverage is sharply contrasted with that of newspapers and that the Internet played a role as a medium with its own voice. In addition, the influence of perceived responsibility was taken into account along with the impact of news frames. Finally, the mechanisms of how citizens form political evaluations in the midst of a partisan dispute were investigated. Therefore, I believe that this research can be useful to understand how a real-world media environment affects political perceptions in the context of fierce ideological clashes. Literature Review News Framing and Political Judgment Arguably, the obvious starting point of framing effects on public perceptions is Tversky and Kahneman’s Asian disease outbreak problem. In the experiment, participants were asked to choose a program to deal with a hypothetical Asian disease outbreak. When program choices were presented in the context of saving people (i.e., gain frame), they preferred a program that was supposed to surely save people to the other one that presented the probability of saving people, even though, in reality, the outcomes were the same across the choices. Contrary to this, when given choices describing the loss of people to the disease (i.e., loss frame), the majority of respondents opted for the choice with the probability of killing people instead of the one that was

Authors: Lee, ByungGu.
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The political fallout was enormous. The President and the relevant Cabinet members 
made apologies for the decision to import U.S. beef from old cattle. The President also made a 
public announcement that he would overhaul his presidential senior secretaries and the Cabinet. 
In addition, the government was forced to re-negotiate with the United States to demand stronger 
sanitary conditions in its beef. 
I proposed that the case described above is suitable for testing the impact of contradicting 
frames on political perceptions in a real world situation, given the natural experiment setting that 
the tone of television news coverage is sharply contrasted with that of newspapers  and that the 
Internet played a role as a medium with its own voice. In addition, the influence of perceived 
responsibility  was taken into account along with the impact of news frames. Finally, the 
mechanisms of how citizens form political evaluations in the midst of a partisan dispute were 
investigated. Therefore, I believe that this research can be useful to understand how a real-world 
media environment affects political perceptions in the context of fierce ideological clashes.  
Literature Review
News Framing and Political Judgment
Arguably, the obvious starting point of framing effects on public perceptions is 
 Asian disease outbreak problem. In the experiment, participants were asked to 
choose a program to deal with a hypothetical Asian disease outbreak. When program choices 
were presented in the context of saving people (i.e., gain frame), they preferred a program that 
was supposed to surely save people to the other one that presented the probability of saving 
people, even though, in reality, the outcomes were the same across the choices. Contrary to this, 
when given choices describing the loss of people to the disease (i.e., loss frame), the majority of 
respondents opted for the choice with the probability of killing people instead of the one that was 

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