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The Impact of Contradicting Media Messages on Political Perceptions: The Case of a Partisan Dispute in Korea over Lifting Ban on U.S. Beef Imports
Unformatted Document Text:  THE IMPACT OF CONFLICTING FRAMES 7 supposed to kill the same number of people for sure. The results suggest that people’s judgments are dependent upon the ways an issue is presented even without any changes in object conditions. Druckman refers to the aforementioned type of framing as “equivalency framing” (p. 671) in that logics behind every statement are equivalent, and distinguishes it from “issue framing,” the type of framing that citizens face in their everyday lives. He argues that “issue framing effects refer to situations where, by emphasizing a subset of potentially relevant considerations, a speaker leads individuals to focus on these considerations when constructing their opinions” (p. 672). The idea that framing effects occur by making salient certain aspects of an issue is repeated by other researchers. Entman maintains that framing is to “select some aspects of a perceived reality and make them more salient in a communicating text, in such a way as to promote a particular problem definition, causal interpretation, moral evaluation, and/or treatment recommendation for the item described” (p. 52). In a similar vein, Zaller (1992) suggests that, in the political realm, political elites’ representation of an event is so selective and simple that it does not deliver “a full record of important events and developments in the world” (p. 7), which makes certain aspects of an issue highlighted, while ignoring the other. Then, the question becomes how effective framing is in shaping people’s perceptions. In an effort to answer the question, Nelson, Clawson, and Oxley conducted an experiment to test the effect of news frames on tolerance for the Ku Klux Klan (KKK). They first presented research participants with one of two local news stories about a Klan rally framed either as a free speech issue or as a disruption of the public order. Tolerance for the Klan was higher among those who watched the free speech story expressed than among those who did the public order story. In addition, framing not only has impact on attitudes per se, but also has on thoughts,

Authors: Lee, ByungGu.
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THE IMPACT OF CONFLICTING FRAMES   
      7
supposed to kill the same number of people for sure. The results suggest that people’s judgments 
are dependent upon the ways an issue is presented even without any changes in object 
conditions.
Druckman  refers to the aforementioned type of framing as “equivalency framing” (p. 
671) in that logics behind every statement are equivalent, and distinguishes it from “issue 
framing,” the type of framing that citizens face in their everyday lives. He argues that “issue 
framing effects refer to situations where, by emphasizing a subset of potentially relevant 
considerations, a speaker leads individuals to focus on these considerations when constructing 
their opinions” (p. 672). The idea that framing effects occur by making salient certain aspects of 
an issue is repeated by other researchers. Entman  maintains that framing is to “select some 
aspects of a perceived reality and make them more salient in a communicating text, in such a 
way as to promote a particular problem definition, causal interpretation, moral evaluation, and/or 
treatment recommendation for the item described” (p. 52). In a similar vein, Zaller (1992) 
suggests that, in the political realm, political elites’ representation of an event is so selective and 
simple that it does not deliver “a full record of important events and developments in the world” 
(p. 7), which makes certain aspects of an issue highlighted, while ignoring the other.
Then, the question becomes how effective framing is in shaping people’s perceptions. In 
an effort to answer the question, Nelson, Clawson, and Oxley  conducted an experiment to test 
the effect of news frames on tolerance for the Ku Klux Klan (KKK). They first presented 
research participants with one of two local news stories about a Klan rally framed either as a free 
speech issue or as a disruption of the public order. Tolerance for the Klan was higher among 
those who watched the free speech story expressed than among those who did the public order 
story. In addition, framing not only has impact on attitudes per se, but also has on thoughts, 


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