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The Impact of Contradicting Media Messages on Political Perceptions: The Case of a Partisan Dispute in Korea over Lifting Ban on U.S. Beef Imports
Unformatted Document Text:  THE IMPACT OF CONFLICTING FRAMES 8 recall of information and the presentation of said information. For example, Valkenburg, Semetko, and De Vreese found that respondents who had just read a story framed in the context of human interest emphasized emotions and individual implications in their responses significantly more often than those in other conditions. Likewise, respondents who had just read stories framed in the context of conflict were significantly more likely to express thoughts that involved conflict, and those who had just read a story framed in terms of economic consequences focused on costs and financial implications in their thoughts significantly more often. Additionally, Zaller argues that public perceptions of political issues are dependent upon elite discourses such that opinions of those who are politically knowledgeable become homogenous and are well aligned with elite attitudes when there is a consensus among elites, whereas elite division causes a separation of opinions according to value orientations that they subscribe to. In sum, evidence found to date generally supports the impact of framing on shaping or altering citizens’ perceptions . Although it is well documented that framing an issue in a certain way, in general, tends to yield intended results, such an attempt is not omnipotent. That is, certain constraints may limit its impact. First, perceived source credibility plays an important role for successful framing. By manipulating the source the stimuli are attributed to, Druckman found statements attributed to a credible source such as Colin Powell were capable of influencing public opinions, whereas the same statements credited to Jerry Springer as a non-credible source were not. In addition, certain types of interpersonal communication and personal characteristics lead to dampen framing effects. In their experiments, Druckman and Nelson expand the research on elite framing effects through the inclusion of interpersonal discussion factors as well as the moderating factor of “need to evaluate” (p. 729). The authors find that conversations that include only

Authors: Lee, ByungGu.
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recall of information and the presentation of said information. For example, Valkenburg, 
Semetko, and De Vreese  found that respondents who had just read a story framed in the context 
of human interest emphasized emotions and individual implications in their responses 
significantly more often than those in other conditions. Likewise, respondents who had just read 
stories framed in the context of conflict were significantly more likely to express thoughts that 
involved conflict, and those who had just read a story framed in terms of economic consequences 
focused on costs and financial implications in their thoughts significantly more often. 
Additionally, Zaller  argues that public perceptions of political issues are dependent upon elite 
discourses such that opinions of those who are politically knowledgeable become homogenous 
and are well aligned with elite attitudes when there is a consensus among elites, whereas elite 
division causes a separation of opinions according to value orientations that they subscribe to. In 
sum, evidence found to date generally supports the impact of framing on shaping or altering 
citizens’ perceptions  . 
Although it is well documented that framing an issue in a certain way, in general, tends to 
yield intended results, such an attempt is not omnipotent. That is, certain constraints may limit its 
impact. First, perceived source credibility plays an important role for successful framing. By 
manipulating the source the stimuli are attributed to, Druckman  found statements attributed to a 
credible source such as Colin Powell were capable of influencing public opinions, whereas the 
same statements credited to Jerry Springer as a non-credible source were not. In addition, certain 
types of interpersonal communication and personal characteristics lead to dampen framing 
effects. In their experiments, Druckman and Nelson  expand the research on elite framing effects 
through the inclusion of interpersonal discussion factors as well as the moderating factor of 
“need to evaluate” (p. 729). 
The authors find that conversations that include only 

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