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Exploring Cross-Cultural Value Structure with Smartphone
Unformatted Document Text:  values is somehow related to enjoyment whereas usability is associated with quality. This study supports the convergent and discriminant validity of such scales. While there have been many scales on general mobile services, such scales applied into smartphones have been scare. Thus, these scales and constructs will be useful for future smartphone evaluation and adoption factor research. Second, this study supports an application of the TRA to smartphones. This opens a window of opportunity to apply TRA into emerging smart technologies. Walsh et al. (2010) argue that understanding the effects and adoption of smart media is a complex one that requires careful attention to antecedent, mediating, and consequent conditions. The findings shed lights on positive potentials of the model in emerging smart technologies. This underlines that smart services should be rooted in known user interfaces and cultural differences. Therefore, any attempt to speculate on the future direction of smart technology theory should include the model. This could lead to a more comprehensive view of how people use the smart media, and, more importantly, how they perceive they use the smart media. In conclusion, the findings presented in this study lend substantial support for correlating cultural variables with smartphone practices. This study elucidates motivations associated with smartphone acceptance and the implications for developing effective global smartphone services. As users accept smartphones as a new tool to communicate, collaborate, and entertain, industries should provide usable tools and platforms for users. Of coarsely smartphones will continue to evolve. The more closely we grasp the individual and collective evolvement of smartphones in diverse cultural setting, the better prepared we become both to design phones that fill users’ aesthetic desires and utility needs. 8. Limitations and future studies Just like any other cross-cultural research, this study bears limitations such as comparability of the samples, cultural differences in interpreting the survey items, possible biases in response styles, and differences in socio-demographic respondent structure. Besides, this study has its methodological, sampling, and interpretive limitations and some of the findings require further discussion. First, the findings reflect only limited aspects of user experiences of smartphones. As smartphones are still in its early stages of diffusion, the sample in this study may not correctly represent whole population of smartphone users. In addition, since mobile ecologies surrounding smartphones are different in the two countries (for example the diffusion rates in the two countries are clearly different), the findings of this study may raise question: To what extent do the samples represent the population currently engaging in smartphone user communities? Future studies will be able to sample a larger population and obtain more generalizable results. Second, for simplicity’s sake, this study excluded individual differences as factors in smartphone acceptance (e.g., demographics, user experience, and personal innovativeness). Related to this, this study set out with a simplified parsimonious model as an exploratory attempt. In addition, it did not research into complicated relations among factors. There could be many other arrows in the model that could be added. These possibly significant links can be a starting point for future studies as it might be helpful to unravel the complex multi-dimensional functions of human behavior in the 18

Authors: Shin, Dong-Hee.
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values is somehow related to enjoyment whereas usability is associated with quality. This 
study supports the convergent and discriminant validity of such scales. While there have 
been many scales on general mobile services, such scales applied into smartphones have 
been scare. Thus, these scales and constructs will be useful for future smartphone 
evaluation and adoption factor research. 
Second, this study supports an application of the TRA to smartphones. This opens 
a window of opportunity to apply TRA into emerging smart technologies. Walsh et al. 
(2010) argue that understanding the effects and adoption of smart media is a complex one 
that requires careful attention to antecedent, mediating, and consequent conditions. The 
findings shed lights on positive potentials of the model in emerging smart technologies. 
This underlines that smart services should be rooted in known user interfaces and cultural 
differences. Therefore, any attempt to speculate on the future direction of smart 
technology theory should include the model. This could lead to a more comprehensive 
view of how people use the smart media, and, more importantly, how they perceive they 
use the smart media. 
In conclusion, the findings presented in this study lend substantial support for 
correlating cultural variables with smartphone practices. This study elucidates 
motivations associated with smartphone acceptance and the implications for developing 
effective global smartphone services. As users accept smartphones as a new tool to 
communicate, collaborate, and entertain, industries should provide usable tools and 
platforms for users. Of coarsely smartphones will continue to evolve. The more closely 
we grasp the individual and collective evolvement of smartphones in diverse cultural 
setting, the better prepared we become both to design phones that fill users’ aesthetic 
desires and utility needs.
8. Limitations and future studies
Just like any other cross-cultural research, this study bears limitations such as 
comparability of the samples, cultural differences in interpreting the survey items, 
possible biases in response styles, and differences in socio-demographic respondent 
structure. Besides, this study has its methodological, sampling, and interpretive 
limitations and some of the findings require further discussion.
First, the findings reflect only limited aspects of user experiences of smartphones. 
As smartphones are still in its early stages of diffusion, the sample in this study may not 
correctly represent whole population of smartphone users. In addition, since mobile 
ecologies surrounding smartphones are different in the two countries (for example the 
diffusion rates in the two countries are clearly different), the findings of this study may 
raise question: To what extent do the samples represent the population currently engaging 
in smartphone user communities? Future studies will be able to sample a larger 
population and obtain more generalizable results.
Second, for simplicity’s sake, this study excluded individual differences as factors 
in smartphone acceptance (e.g., demographics, user experience, and personal 
innovativeness). Related to this, this study set out with a simplified parsimonious model 
as an exploratory attempt. In addition, it did not research into complicated relations 
among factors. There could be many other arrows in the model that could be added. 
These possibly significant links can be a starting point for future studies as it might be 
helpful to unravel the complex multi-dimensional functions of human behavior in the 

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