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Exploring Cross-Cultural Value Structure with Smartphone
Unformatted Document Text:  items missing from the model, and to gain a preliminary understanding of the factors that have an impact on usage behaviors. Third, based on the focus group sessions, a final survey questionnaire was developed through several comment rounds of an expert panel consisting of professors, researchers, and smartphone experts. Prior to its use, the questionnaire was cross tested by bilingual speakers for exact match-up of the different version of questionnaires. With these precautions, the possibility of participants filling out some questions without exactly understanding the content of those questions was eliminated. The wording of items was reviewed and modified by three marketing professors knowledgeable in quantitative research based on the pilot test outcomes. Instrument validity and reliability A pretest was undertaken to examine test-retest reliability and to construct reliability indices before conducting field work. Thirty current smartphone users participated in the two pretests at an interval of one month. After eliminating the measured items that failed in either the retest or the alpha test, Cronbach’s alpha was applied to identify poor item-to-total-correlation items. The alpha values ranged between 0.841 and 0.917, suggesting acceptable construct reliability. When theoretical models do not exist, these pretests are useful in the early stages of empirical analysis in cases for which the basic purpose is exploration. Additionally, using Principal Components Analysis, the construct validity of the instrument was confirmed. After 3 items of the original item survey were removed (due to high cross-loading), all item loadings were greater than 0.5, with no cross-loading above 0.4 (Hair et al. 1995). Similarly, discrimiant validity was confirmed as the correlation between items in any two constructs were lower than the square root of the average variance shared by items within a construct (Fornell & Larcker, 1981). Data collection The finalized full survey was administered by a private marketing company. The company specializes in survey development, data collection, analysis, and reporting. The company has branch offices both in the U.S. and Korea and they have a large scale of panel data of smartphones. The company was chosen because they specialize in cross-country data analysis. For over five-month period, a total of 451 users (Korea 220; the U.S. 231) were collected by the survey companies in the two countries. Survey questions, developed in two languages, were presented in each country. The English version of the questionnaire used in the U.S. was translated into Korean and then back-translated into English to assure comparability (See Appendix). To refine and increase the validity of survey data, 41 responses that contained answers with systematic errors and those with inconsistent information were excluded. Table 1 presents the sample demographics. The final sample reflects the general population of smartphones. Table 1.Characteristics of the respondents (total=451) Age Korea (%) The US (%) Under 20 12.0 19.4 21-30 53.9 46.8 9

Authors: Shin, Dong-Hee.
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items missing from the model, and to gain a preliminary understanding of the factors that 
have an impact on usage behaviors. Third, based on the focus group sessions, a final 
survey questionnaire was developed through several comment rounds of an expert panel 
consisting of professors, researchers, and smartphone experts. Prior to its use, the 
questionnaire was cross tested by bilingual speakers for exact match-up of the different 
version of questionnaires. With these precautions, the possibility of participants filling 
out some questions without exactly understanding the content of those questions was 
eliminated. The wording of items was reviewed and modified by three marketing 
professors knowledgeable in quantitative research based on the pilot test outcomes.
Instrument validity and reliability
A pretest was undertaken to examine test-retest reliability and to construct 
reliability indices before conducting field work. Thirty current smartphone users 
participated in the two pretests at an interval of one month. After eliminating the 
measured items that failed in either the retest or the alpha test, Cronbach’s alpha was 
applied to identify poor item-to-total-correlation items. The alpha values ranged between 
0.841 and 0.917, suggesting acceptable construct reliability. When theoretical models do 
not exist, these pretests are useful in the early stages of empirical analysis in cases for 
which the basic purpose is exploration. Additionally, using Principal Components 
Analysis, the construct validity of the instrument was confirmed. After 3 items of the 
original item survey were removed (due to high cross-loading), all item loadings were 
greater than 0.5, with no cross-loading above 0.4 (Hair et al. 1995). Similarly, discrimiant 
validity was confirmed as the correlation between items in any two constructs were lower 
than the square root of the average variance shared by items within a construct (Fornell & 
Larcker, 1981). 
Data collection
The finalized full survey was administered by a private marketing company. The 
company specializes in survey development, data collection, analysis, and reporting. The 
company has branch offices both in the U.S. and Korea and they have a large scale of 
panel data of smartphones. The company was chosen because they specialize in cross-
country data analysis. For over five-month period, a total of 451 users (Korea 220; the 
U.S. 231) were collected by the survey companies in the two countries. Survey questions, 
developed in two languages, were presented in each country. The English version of the 
questionnaire used in the U.S. was translated into Korean and then back-translated into 
English to assure comparability (See Appendix). To refine and increase the validity of 
survey data, 41 responses that contained answers with systematic errors and those with 
inconsistent information were excluded. Table 1 presents the sample demographics. The 
final sample reflects the general population of smartphones. 
Table 1.
Characteristics of the respondents (total=451)
Age
Korea (%)
The US (%)
Under 20 
12.0
19.4
21-30 
53.9
46.8
9


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