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Portrayal of the Iraqi Kurdistan Region in U.S. Newspapers
Unformatted Document Text:  government, various powerful social institutions, the utilization of technology, and the economic environment; and (e) ideology, which is defined as a symbolic mechanism that serves as a cohesive and integrating force in a society (p. 38). Governments often try to influence the news media to support their policies and plans. In the United States, there are several ways to do that: media ownership, major revenue source (advertising), official sources of information, and criticism by officials (Herman & Chomesky, 1988). As a result, according to Herman and Chomsky, media coverage often backs the interests or official foreign policies of the American government. Newsmakers work according to cultural assumptions their departments set for writing news (Avraham, Wolfsfeld & Aburaiya, 2000). One of the assumptions is majority’s perspective toward other groups in and outside the country. Scholars find that those perspectives reflect in the journalists’ works (Croteau and Hoynes 1997; Davis 1990; Gamson et al. 1992). Most editors presume that majority pay little attention to minorities “unless such groups represent a threat to social order” (Avraham et al. 2000, p. 118). Avraham et al. (2000) argue that all the groups are not dealt with equally. Those minority groups that are closer than others to a country get more positive media coverage in that country (Avraham, 1998). The more values of a minority group are compatible with the values of a country, the more attention that groups will get in the media in that country (Gill, 1987). And Wolfsfeld (1997) argued that those

Authors: Ghafour, Goran.
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government, various powerful social institutions, the utilization of 
technology, and the economic environment; and (e) ideology, which is 
defined as a symbolic mechanism that serves as a cohesive and 
integrating force in a society (p. 38). 
     Governments often try to influence the news media to support their policies 
and plans. In the United States, there are several ways to do that: media ownership, 
major revenue source (advertising), official sources of information, and criticism by 
officials (Herman & Chomesky, 1988). As a result, according to Herman and Chomsky, 
media coverage often backs the interests or official foreign policies of the American 
     Newsmakers work according to cultural assumptions their departments set 
for writing news (Avraham, Wolfsfeld & Aburaiya, 2000). One of the assumptions is 
majority’s perspective toward other groups in and outside the country. Scholars find 
that those perspectives reflect in the journalists’ works (Croteau and Hoynes 1997; 
Davis 1990; Gamson et al. 1992). Most editors presume that majority pay little 
attention to minorities “unless such groups represent a threat to social order” 
(Avraham et al. 2000, p. 118). 
     Avraham et al. (2000) argue that all the groups are not dealt with equally. 
Those minority groups that are closer than others to a country get more positive 
media coverage in that country (Avraham, 1998). The more values of a minority 
group are compatible with the values of a country, the more attention that groups will 
get in the media in that country (Gill, 1987). And Wolfsfeld (1997) argued that those 

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