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#Forward!: Twitter as Citizen Journalism in the Wisconsin Labor Protests
Unformatted Document Text:  Twitter
and
the
Wisconsin
Labor
Protests

 
 11
 News
production.
News
production
is
a
complex
process
and
many
stages,
 techniques
and
strategies
are
involved
from
gathering
information
to
producing
 content.
The
way
information
is
collected,
processed
and
reported
is
determined
by
 many
factors
and
policies
of
the
journalists
(individually)
and
news
organizations
 (collectively).
From
the
1940s
into
late
1960s,
it
was
thought
that
media
played
a
 very
powerful
role
to
motivate
people.
In
this
way,
traditional
media
theories
 emphasized
a
news
production
process
that
was
“vertical”
in
nature.
However,
new
 technologies
and
forms
of
communication
have
changed
the
human
communication
 landscape.
According
to
Coyer,
Dowmunt
and
Fountain
(2007),
new
communication
 technologies
have
provided
“a
horizontal,
peer‐to‐peer
network,
rather
than
a
 centralized
or
vertically
organized
system;
also,
it
is
universally
accessible”
(p.
186).
 The
arguments
of
scholars
who
have
highly
appreciated
the
role
of
media
 actually
were
based
on
the
seemingly
large,
direct
effects
of
media.
To
argue
on
the
 level
of
direct
effect,
the
scholars
use
the
metaphor
of
the
“hypodermic
needle,”
 suggesting
that
media
messages
had
direct
and
immediate
effects
on
generally
 passive
audiences.
 These
effects
had
antecedents
in
the
“gatekeeping”
model
of
news
production
 (White,
1950).
The
gatekeepers
in
the
media
have
some
prejudices
by
which
they
 determine
whether
any
information
will
be
published
or
not.
The
media
also
 determine
which
stories
will
be
important
to
the
audience
and
also
set
the
agenda
 for
audience
(McCombs
&
Shaw,
1972).
Additionally,
media
gatekeepers
choose
to
 emphasize
certain
values
and
facts
(though
the
process
of
framing
and
priming),
 which
influence
audience
interpretation
of
and
response
to
news
stories.


Authors: Veenstra, Aaron., Iyer, Narayanan., Bansal, Namrata., Hossain, Mohammad., Park, Jiwoo. and Hong, Jiachun.
first   previous   Page 12 of 33   next   last



background image
Twitter
and
the
Wisconsin
Labor
Protests


11

News
production.
News
production
is
a
complex
process
and
many
stages,

techniques
and
strategies
are
involved
from
gathering
information
to
producing

content.
The
way
information
is
collected,
processed
and
reported
is
determined
by

many
factors
and
policies
of
the
journalists
(individually)
and
news
organizations

(collectively).
From
the
1940s
into
late
1960s,
it
was
thought
that
media
played
a

very
powerful
role
to
motivate
people.
In
this
way,
traditional
media
theories

emphasized
a
news
production
process
that
was
“vertical”
in
nature.
However,
new

technologies
and
forms
of
communication
have
changed
the
human
communication

landscape.
According
to
Coyer,
Dowmunt
and
Fountain
(2007),
new
communication

technologies
have
provided
“a
horizontal,
peer‐to‐peer
network,
rather
than
a

centralized
or
vertically
organized
system;
also,
it
is
universally
accessible”
(p.
186).

The
arguments
of
scholars
who
have
highly
appreciated
the
role
of
media

actually
were
based
on
the
seemingly
large,
direct
effects
of
media.
To
argue
on
the

level
of
direct
effect,
the
scholars
use
the
metaphor
of
the
“hypodermic
needle,”

suggesting
that
media
messages
had
direct
and
immediate
effects
on
generally

passive
audiences.

These
effects
had
antecedents
in
the
“gatekeeping”
model
of
news
production

(White,
1950).
The
gatekeepers
in
the
media
have
some
prejudices
by
which
they

determine
whether
any
information
will
be
published
or
not.
The
media
also

determine
which
stories
will
be
important
to
the
audience
and
also
set
the
agenda

for
audience
(McCombs
&
Shaw,
1972).
Additionally,
media
gatekeepers
choose
to

emphasize
certain
values
and
facts
(though
the
process
of
framing
and
priming),

which
influence
audience
interpretation
of
and
response
to
news
stories.



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