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#Forward!: Twitter as Citizen Journalism in the Wisconsin Labor Protests
Unformatted Document Text:  Twitter
and
the
Wisconsin
Labor
Protests

 
 22
 significant
difference
of
z
=
3.68.
There
were
no
significant
differences
between
 results
in
the
two
samples
(z
=
.23
for
all
tweets,
z
=
.62
for
original
tweets
only).
 These
findings
support
hypothesis
2,
again
suggesting
a
dilution
from
retweeting.
 Our
third
hypothesis,
that
tweets
with
links
would
use
more
tags
than
non‐ link
tweets,
was
tested
using
the
same
ANOVA
model
across
each
sample.
In
the
 theory
development
sample,
tweets
with
links
had
significantly
more
tags
than
non‐ link
tweets
(F(386895)
=
4070.07,
p
<
.001),
an
effect
which
significantly
interacted
 with
retweeting
(F(386895)
=
158.4,
p
<
.001),
such
that
original
tweets
with
links
 had
the
most
tags.
These
findings
were
replicated
in
the
confirmatory
sample,
with
 significant
effects
of
linking
(F(388133)
=
4408.81,
p
<
.001)
and
the
interaction
of
 linking
and
retweeting
(F(388133)
=
218.6,
p
<
.001).
These
findings
support
 hypothesis
3,
and
show
a
continued
diluting
effect
of
retweeting.
 Our
fourth
hypothesis,
that
the
prevalence
of
links
would
decrease
over
time
 during
our
observation
period,
was
tested
using
four
regression
models
in
which
 days
were
the
units
of
analysis
(N
=
22).
For
each
day,
we
computed
the
total
 number
of
tweets
and
the
total
number
of
original
tweets,
as
well
as
how
many
of
 those
tweets
had
links
at
all
or
specifically
links
to
traditional
news
sites.
Each
of
the
 four
models
controlled
for
the
total
tweets
from
that
day.
Testing
the
relationship
 between
time
and
link
prevalence,
we
found
significant
negative
relationships
 among
both
all
tweets
(ß
=
‐.229,
p
<
.1)
and
original
tweets
only
(ß
=
‐.222,
p
<
.1).
 Testing
the
relationship
between
time
and
news
link
prevalence,
we
found
a
 significant
negative
relationship
among
all
tweets
(ß
=
‐.347,
p
<
.1),
but
no
 significant
relationship
among
original
tweets
only
(ß
=
‐.063,
n.s.).
These
findings


Authors: Veenstra, Aaron., Iyer, Narayanan., Bansal, Namrata., Hossain, Mohammad., Park, Jiwoo. and Hong, Jiachun.
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background image
Twitter
and
the
Wisconsin
Labor
Protests


22

significant
difference
of
z
=
3.68.
There
were
no
significant
differences
between

results
in
the
two
samples
(z
=
.23
for
all
tweets,
z
=
.62
for
original
tweets
only).

These
findings
support
hypothesis
2,
again
suggesting
a
dilution
from
retweeting.

Our
third
hypothesis,
that
tweets
with
links
would
use
more
tags
than
non‐
link
tweets,
was
tested
using
the
same
ANOVA
model
across
each
sample.
In
the

theory
development
sample,
tweets
with
links
had
significantly
more
tags
than
non‐
link
tweets
(F(386895)
=
4070.07,
p
<
.001),
an
effect
which
significantly
interacted

with
retweeting
(F(386895)
=
158.4,
p
<
.001),
such
that
original
tweets
with
links

had
the
most
tags.
These
findings
were
replicated
in
the
confirmatory
sample,
with

significant
effects
of
linking
(F(388133)
=
4408.81,
p
<
.001)
and
the
interaction
of

linking
and
retweeting
(F(388133)
=
218.6,
p
<
.001).
These
findings
support

hypothesis
3,
and
show
a
continued
diluting
effect
of
retweeting.

Our
fourth
hypothesis,
that
the
prevalence
of
links
would
decrease
over
time

during
our
observation
period,
was
tested
using
four
regression
models
in
which

days
were
the
units
of
analysis
(N
=
22).
For
each
day,
we
computed
the
total

number
of
tweets
and
the
total
number
of
original
tweets,
as
well
as
how
many
of

those
tweets
had
links
at
all
or
specifically
links
to
traditional
news
sites.
Each
of
the

four
models
controlled
for
the
total
tweets
from
that
day.
Testing
the
relationship

between
time
and
link
prevalence,
we
found
significant
negative
relationships

among
both
all
tweets
(ß
=
‐.229,
p
<
.1)
and
original
tweets
only
(ß
=
‐.222,
p
<
.1).

Testing
the
relationship
between
time
and
news
link
prevalence,
we
found
a

significant
negative
relationship
among
all
tweets
(ß
=
‐.347,
p
<
.1),
but
no

significant
relationship
among
original
tweets
only
(ß
=
‐.063,
n.s.).
These
findings



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