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Exploring the Effects of External Brand Placement on Game Players’ Processing of In-Game Brand
Unformatted Document Text:  Running Head: EFFECTS OF EXTERNAL BRAND PLACEMENT To avoid brand familiarity effects, which are known to affect brand recall (Nelson, 2002), respondents were asked to report brand familiarity with the external brand. Participants were asked to indicate the brand familiarity when they filled out the demographic information questionnaires. This was to assess their brand familiarity based on their prior knowledge about the brand. A one-way ANOVA test revealed that brand familiarity difference between two brands was not found to be significant, F(2, 89) = .44, p > .05, indicating that prior brand familiarity was controlled across the experimental conditions. The attitude mean was highest for the brand ‘Prince’ (M = 3.66, SD = .39), followed by ‘Wilson’ (M = 3.16, SD = 0.39). Hypothesis 1: Identical vs. No external brand The chi-square analysis indicated that there was no significant difference for in-game brand recognition between players who experienced an identical external brand to the in-game brand (Prince) and players who had no external brand experience, χ²(1) = 2.69, p > .05, disconfirming H1-a. However, as H1-b stated, there was a significant difference in in-game brand recall between two game player groups, χ²(1) = 10.47, p < .05. Players who experienced an identical external brand produced significantly greater recall (25%) for the in-game brand compared to players who experienced no external brand (6%). This analysis supported for H1-b. To investigate the influence of a similar external brand experience on in-game brand attitude (H1-c), an ANCOVA was performed. Gender, F(1, 51) = 0.98, p >.05, video game experience, F(1, 51) = .05, p > .05, and Wii game experience, F(1, 51) = 1.67, p > .05, were not significant covariates. After controlling the three covariates, experiencing an identical congruent brand during game play (M = 5.15, SD = 1.23) failed to lead to a significantly different brand attitude from the control group who had no brand experience (M = 5.06, SD = 1.34), F(1, 51) = .00, p > . 05, η p 2 = .08. Overall, H1 was partially supported. 19

Authors: Kim, Eunice. and Eastin, Matthew.
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Running Head: EFFECTS OF EXTERNAL BRAND PLACEMENT 
To avoid brand familiarity effects, which are known to affect brand recall (Nelson, 2002), 
respondents were asked to report brand familiarity with the external brand. Participants were 
asked to indicate the brand familiarity when they filled out the demographic information 
questionnaires. This was to assess their brand familiarity based on their prior knowledge about 
the brand. A one-way ANOVA test revealed that brand familiarity difference between two 
brands was not found to be significant, F(2, 89) = .44, p > .05, indicating that prior brand 
familiarity was controlled across the experimental conditions. The attitude mean was highest for 
the brand ‘Prince’ (M = 3.66, SD = .39), followed by ‘Wilson’ (M = 3.16, SD = 0.39).         
Hypothesis 1: Identical vs. No external brand   
The chi-square analysis indicated that there was no significant difference for in-game 
brand recognition between players who experienced an identical external brand to the in-game 
brand (Prince) and players who had no external brand experience, χ²(1) = 2.69, > .05, 
disconfirming H1-a. However, as H1-b stated, there was a significant difference in in-game 
brand recall between two game player groups, χ²(1) = 10.47, p < .05. Players who experienced an 
identical external brand produced significantly greater recall (25%) for the in-game brand 
compared to players who experienced no external brand (6%). This analysis supported for H1-b. 
To investigate the influence of a similar external brand experience on in-game brand attitude 
(H1-c), an ANCOVA was performed. Gender, F(1, 51) = 0.98, >.05, video game experience, 
F(1, 51) = .05, > .05, and Wii game experience, F(1, 51) = 1.67, p > .05, were not significant 
covariates. After controlling the three covariates, experiencing an identical congruent brand 
during game play (M = 5.15, SD = 1.23) failed to lead to a significantly different brand attitude 
from the control group who had no brand experience (M = 5.06, SD = 1.34), F(1, 51) = .00, > .
05, η
p
= .08. Overall, H1 was partially supported. 
19


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