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2D or 3D? The Effects on Viewers’ Sense of Presence and Enjoyment
Unformatted Document Text:  The Effects on Viewers’ Sense of Presence and Enjoyment 14 which has been supported to have reasonable levels of validity and reliability in past empirical studies (e.g., Lombard & Ditton, 2004; Lombard et al., 2000; Slater, 1999;Witmer, Jerome, & Singer, 2005; Witmer & Singer, 1998). Nevertheless, the lack of a uniform set of measurement items hinders the comparison of results across studies. A sound measurement for presence should not only integrate all of the sub-dimensions of presence, but also should permit comparisons across various media formats and contents (Lombard et al, 2009). Another contribution that the current study made to the theoretical development of presence is that media user variables were included in explaining the effects of independent variables. The identical media content or presenting form can produce different senses of presence due to individual differences. Although claims that characteristics of media users are important determinants of presence have been highlighted by some researchers (e.g., Lombard & Ditton, 1997), empirical evidence is not forthcoming. Researchers have argued that the willingness to suspend disbelief was an important determinant of presence. Here we interpret concept as a person’s transportability. According to Green and Brock (2000), transportation is a mental process where mental systems focused on the occurring events, in this context, the mediated environment. When an individual transported to the mediated world, parts of the real world is contemporarily inaccessible (Green & Brock, 2000). This mental state is to some extent similar to the state of presence. Therefore, drawing on literature from prior studies on transportation theory, we found that the transportability of individuals can serve as a factor that influences presence and enjoyment. Our results indeed demonstrate the different effects of transportability between individuals. Limitations of the study should be noted. Due to experimental facility issues, the participants watched the movie clips in front of a 52-inch HDTV in a lab setting. The effect of

Authors: Zhang, Cui., Zhou, Shuhua. and Meadows, Charles.
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The Effects on Viewers’ Sense of Presence and Enjoyment
                                                                  
14
which has been supported to have reasonable levels of validity and reliability in past empirical 
studies (e.g., Lombard & Ditton, 2004; Lombard et al., 2000; Slater, 1999;Witmer, Jerome, & 
Singer, 2005; Witmer & Singer, 1998). Nevertheless, the lack of a uniform set of measurement 
items hinders the comparison of results across studies. A sound measurement for presence should 
not only integrate all of the sub-dimensions of presence, but also should permit comparisons 
across various media formats and contents (Lombard et al, 2009). 
Another contribution that the current study made to the theoretical development of presence 
is that media user variables were included in explaining the effects of independent variables. The 
identical media content or presenting form can produce different senses of presence due to 
individual differences. Although claims that characteristics of media users are important 
determinants of presence have been highlighted by some researchers (e.g., Lombard & Ditton, 
1997), empirical evidence is not forthcoming. Researchers have argued that the willingness to 
suspend disbelief was an important determinant of presence. Here we interpret concept as a 
person’s transportability. According to Green and Brock (2000), transportation is a mental 
process where mental systems focused on the occurring events, in this context, the mediated 
environment. When an individual transported to the mediated world, parts of the real world is 
contemporarily inaccessible (Green & Brock, 2000). This mental state is to some extent similar 
to the state of presence. Therefore, drawing on literature from prior studies on transportation 
theory, we found that the transportability of individuals can serve as a factor that influences 
presence and enjoyment. Our results indeed demonstrate the different effects of transportability 
between individuals. 
Limitations of the study should be noted. Due to experimental facility issues, the 
participants watched the movie clips in front of a 52-inch HDTV in a lab setting. The effect of 


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