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2D or 3D? The Effects on Viewers’ Sense of Presence and Enjoyment
Unformatted Document Text:  The Effects on Viewers’ Sense of Presence and Enjoyment 15 3D will be more prominent if the participants watched the movie clips in a theatre setting with a larger screen. Future studies could also include objective measures into research. This presence study only used a set of self-reported measures. However, over the years, researchers have employed a number of objective instruments to measure presence (e.g., IJsselstiejn, de Ridder, Freeman, Avons, & Bowhuis, 2001; Meehan, Insko, Whitton, & Brooks, 2002; Meehan, Razzaque, Whitton, & Brooks, 2003). These measures include heart rate deceleration, skin conductance, and facial electromyography (EMG). Psychophysiological measures noted above provide a more objective approach to data collection that offers several advantages over traditional self-report measures. References Bouchard, S., Talbot, J., Ledoux, A-A., Phillips, J., Cantamese, M., & Robillard, G. (2009, November). The meaning of being there is related to a specific activation in the brain located in the parahypocampus. Paper presented at the 12th International Workshop on Presence. Los Angeles, California. Bracken, C. C. (2005). Presence and image quality: The case for high-definition television. Media Psychology, 7, 191-205. Bracken, C. C. & Botta, R. A. (2002, October). Presence and television: Form vs. Content. Paper presented at the Fifth International Workshop on presence (PRESENCE 2002), Porto, Portugal. Bracken, C. C. & Pettey, G. (2007, October). It is really a smaller (and smaller) world: Presence and small screens. Paper presented at the Tenth International Workshop on Presence. Barcelona, Spain. Cope, G. M. (2011). Depth of field: the misunderstood element in image design. Retrieved from

Authors: Zhang, Cui., Zhou, Shuhua. and Meadows, Charles.
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The Effects on Viewers’ Sense of Presence and Enjoyment
3D will be more prominent if the participants watched the movie clips in a theatre setting with a 
larger screen. Future studies could also include objective measures into research. This presence 
study only used a set of self-reported measures. However, over the years, researchers have 
employed a number of objective instruments to measure presence (e.g., IJsselstiejn, de Ridder, 
Freeman, Avons, & Bowhuis, 2001; Meehan, Insko, Whitton, & Brooks, 2002; Meehan, 
Razzaque, Whitton, & Brooks, 2003). These measures include heart rate deceleration, skin 
conductance, and facial electromyography (EMG). Psychophysiological measures noted above 
provide a more objective approach to data collection that offers several advantages over 
traditional self-report measures. 
Bouchard, S., Talbot, J., Ledoux, A-A., Phillips, J., Cantamese, M., & Robillard, G. (2009, 
November). The meaning of being there is related to a specific activation in the brain 
located in the parahypocampus. Paper presented at the 12th International Workshop on 
Presence. Los Angeles, California.
Bracken, C. C. (2005). Presence and image quality: The case for high-definition television. 
Media Psychology, 7, 191-205.
Bracken, C. C. & Botta, R. A. (2002, October). Presence and television: Form vs. Content. Paper 
presented at the Fifth International Workshop on presence (PRESENCE 2002), Porto, 
Bracken, C. C. & Pettey, G. (2007, October). It is really a smaller (and smaller) world: 
Presence and small screens. Paper presented at the Tenth
International Workshop on 
Presence. Barcelona, Spain.
Cope, G. M. (2011). Depth of field: the misunderstood element in image design. Retrieved from 

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