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2D or 3D? The Effects on Viewers’ Sense of Presence and Enjoyment
Unformatted Document Text:  The Effects on Viewers’ Sense of Presence and Enjoyment 5 Bracken & Botta, 2002; Lombard et al., 2000). Another study regarding image quality also provided evidence that high-definition TV induced a greater sense of presence among viewers than standard TV (Bracken, 2005). Beyond the previously discussed formal features of media, the present study attempts to form a link between presentation dimensionalities (2D vs. 3D) and sense of presence. A study by Seuntiens, Vogels, and Keersop (2007) are among the only a few studies investigating dimensionality and presence experience. Their findings suggested that 3D viewing was able to enhance viewer’s immersion. Specifically, the field of depth in the 3D viewing provided people a higher sense of “being there”. Depth of Field cues in Movies Depth of field is a technique in image and film production that some parts of an image are in sharp focus but others are not (Cope, 2011). Depth of field changes as the distance from camera to the subject varies. When the depth of field is deep, a large proportion of the objects in the image will be in sharp focus. On the other hand, when the depth of field is shallow, one or several objects in the image will be focused and emphasized, while other parts are fuzzy or out of focus. A shallow depth of field is also referred as “selective focus” (Cope, 2011). Generally, close- up images show a very shallow depth of field. Like humans’ eyes, a lens can only focus objects at a certain distance. Any objects that are in front and behind the point of focus will be fuzzy, in other words, out of focus. The consequence of being out of focus is that the sharpness will decrease (Cope, 2011). The degree of depth of field is affected by several factors: aperture, camera target size, lens focal length, camera to subject distance, and the image viewing size (Cope, 2011).

Authors: Zhang, Cui., Zhou, Shuhua. and Meadows, Charles.
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The Effects on Viewers’ Sense of Presence and Enjoyment
Bracken & Botta, 2002; Lombard et al., 2000). Another study regarding image quality also 
provided evidence that high-definition TV induced a greater sense of presence among viewers 
than standard TV (Bracken, 2005).
Beyond the previously discussed formal features of media, the present study attempts to 
form a link between presentation dimensionalities (2D vs. 3D) and sense of presence. A study by 
Seuntiens, Vogels, and Keersop (2007) are among the only a few studies investigating 
dimensionality and presence experience. Their findings suggested that 3D viewing was able to 
enhance viewer’s immersion. Specifically, the field of depth in the 3D viewing provided people a 
higher sense of “being there”.
Depth of Field cues in Movies
Depth of field is a technique in image and film production that some parts of an image are 
in sharp focus but others are not (Cope, 2011). Depth of field changes as the distance from 
camera to the subject varies. When the depth of field is deep, a large proportion of the objects in 
the image will be in sharp focus. On the other hand, when the depth of field is shallow, one or 
several objects in the image will be focused and emphasized, while other parts are fuzzy or out of 
focus. A shallow depth of field is also referred as “selective focus” (Cope, 2011). Generally, 
close- up images show a very shallow depth of field. 
Like humans’ eyes, a lens can only focus objects at a certain distance. Any objects that are 
in front and behind the point of focus will be fuzzy, in other words, out of focus. The 
consequence of being out of focus is that the sharpness will decrease (Cope, 2011). The degree 
of depth of field is affected by several factors: aperture, camera target size, lens focal length, 
camera to subject distance, and the image viewing size (Cope, 2011). 

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