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2D or 3D? The Effects on Viewers’ Sense of Presence and Enjoyment
Unformatted Document Text:  The Effects on Viewers’ Sense of Presence and Enjoyment 8 Methods This study was a 2 (depth of field: inclusion vs. absence) x 2(dimensionality: 2D vs. 3D) factorial design. The dependent variables were sensations of presence and perceived enjoyment. Depth of field was the within-subject variable, and dimensionality was the between-subject variable. Participants 162 undergraduate students participated in the study for extra credits in a mass communication class from a large Southeast university. Data from 52 participants were dropped due to internal validity issues. As a result, data from 110 students (72% females and 28% males were retained and were included in the final analysis. Participants’ age ranged from 18 to 24 (M=19, SD=1.1, Mdn=19). Stimuli Four movie clips, representing depth of field manipulations, were selected from the movie Polar Express (2004). To control movie content confiding variables, all the movie clips were selected from a single movie. Currently, there is no quantitative index for evaluating depth of field for film or video images. However, Lombard and Ditton (2004) noted that depth of field could be achieved through spatial perspective (i.e., the difference between close objects and distant backgrounds) as well as camera techniques (i.e., distant objects traveling slower than closer objects). Following these two guidelines the researchers selected two scenes for each condition to represent the inclusion and absence of depth of field. Each clip was approximately 1:30 seconds in length. All the clips were played at the same volume level and were presented on a 54in LCD HDTV. Each participant viewed all four movie clips (i.e., two clips with field of

Authors: Zhang, Cui., Zhou, Shuhua. and Meadows, Charles.
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The Effects on Viewers’ Sense of Presence and Enjoyment
                                                                  
8
Methods
This study was a 2 (depth of field: inclusion vs. absence) x 2(dimensionality: 2D vs. 3D) 
factorial design. The dependent variables were sensations of presence and perceived enjoyment. 
Depth of field was the within-subject variable, and dimensionality was the between-subject 
variable.
Participants
162 undergraduate students participated in the study for extra credits in a mass 
communication class from a large Southeast university. Data from 52 participants were dropped 
due to internal validity issues. As a result, data from 110 students (72% females and 28% males 
were retained and were included in the final analysis. Participants’ age ranged from 18 to 24 
(M=19, SD=1.1, Mdn=19).
Stimuli 
Four movie clips, representing depth of field manipulations, were selected from the movie 
Polar Express (2004). To control movie content confiding variables, all the movie clips were 
selected from a single movie. Currently, there is no quantitative index for evaluating depth of 
field for film or video images. However, Lombard and Ditton (2004) noted that depth of field 
could be achieved through spatial perspective (i.e., the difference between close objects and 
distant backgrounds) as well as camera techniques (i.e., distant objects traveling slower than 
closer objects). Following these two guidelines the researchers selected two scenes for each 
condition to represent the inclusion and absence of depth of field. Each clip was approximately 
1:30 seconds in length. All the clips were played at the same volume level and were presented on 
a 54in LCD HDTV. Each participant viewed all four movie clips (i.e., two clips with field of 


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