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Does competition make a difference? An examination of the impact of the Apple Daily on three major newspapers in Taiwan
Unformatted Document Text:  DOES COMPETITION MAKE A DIFFERENCE?   11 coverage of human interest and international events (in both articles and photographs) on their front pages after 2003? Method Sample This study analyzes the articles and photographs on the front pages of the United Daily, the China Times and the Liberty Times. To conduct a before and after comparison, May 2003, the time when the Apple Daily entered the newspaper market in Taiwan, is treated as the dividing date. To examine whether the Apple Daily has influenced the news reporting of three other newspaper, content analysis is the most appropriate method. Adopted sampling approach from Riffe, Lacy and Fico (1998), this study uses samples from two constructed weeks for each of the United Daily, the China Times, and the Liberty Times from both 2002 and 2004. Coding Scheme In order to compare before and after differences in news articles and photographs of these three newspapers in terms of “subject content,” the present authors use 18 categories based on prior studies (Chen, 2003; Johnson & Wanta, 1993; Lacy, 1987; McQuail, 1992; Voakes, Kapfer, Kurpius, & Chern, 1996). The following 18 categories are included: crime, political, sports, religious, accidents, business, elections, entertainment, political policy, human interest, natural disaster, natural phenomenon, celebrity scandal, other political events (ex, rally), international events, finance, social events and military news. Inter-coder Reliability Two coders who enrolled in a journalism graduate program and are fluent in both Chinese and English were used in this study. The first coder coded the entire sample of 84 front pages, including 141 articles and 94 photographs. The second coder coded 18 news articles and 10 photographs from ten (11.9%) of the 84 front pages. A few “mechanical” variables, including the names of newspapers and publication dates, were excluded in order not to inflate inter-coder reliability. Only items that could have been coded differently by both coders were used for calculation. Applying Holsti’s

Authors: Song, Chien-Yun. and Tu, Jia-Wei.
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coverage of human interest and international events (in both articles and photographs) on their front 
pages after 2003?  
This study analyzes the articles and photographs on the front pages of the United Daily, the 
China Times and the Liberty Times. To conduct a before and after comparison, May 2003, the time 
when the Apple Daily entered the newspaper market in Taiwan, is treated as the dividing date.  To 
examine whether the Apple Daily has influenced the news reporting of three other newspaper, content 
analysis is the most appropriate method.  Adopted sampling approach from Riffe, Lacy and Fico 
(1998), this study uses samples from two constructed weeks for each of the United Daily, the China 
Times, and the Liberty Times from both 2002 and 2004.    
Coding Scheme 
In order to compare before and after differences in news articles and photographs of these 
three newspapers in terms of “subject content,” the present authors use 18 categories based on prior 
studies (Chen, 2003; Johnson & Wanta, 1993; Lacy, 1987; McQuail, 1992; Voakes, Kapfer, Kurpius, 
& Chern, 1996). The following 18 categories are included: crime, political, sports, religious, 
accidents, business, elections, entertainment, political policy, human interest, natural disaster, natural 
phenomenon, celebrity scandal, other political events (ex, rally), international events, finance, social 
events and military news. 
Inter-coder Reliability  
Two coders who enrolled in a journalism graduate program and are fluent in both Chinese and 
English were used in this study. The first coder coded the entire sample of 84 front pages, including 
141 articles and 94 photographs. The second coder coded 18 news articles and 10 photographs from 
ten (11.9%) of the 84 front pages. A few “mechanical” variables, including the names of newspapers 
and publication dates, were excluded in order not to inflate inter-coder reliability. Only items that 
could have been coded differently by both coders were used for calculation. Applying Holsti’s 

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