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Does competition make a difference? An examination of the impact of the Apple Daily on three major newspapers in Taiwan
Unformatted Document Text:  DOES COMPETITION MAKE A DIFFERENCE?   12 formula, the agreement was 75%. According to Keyton (2001), the minimum acceptable inter-coder reliability is 70%. Therefore, the inter-coder reliability of this study represents an acceptable level of agreement. Findings RQ1asked whether the United Daily, the China Times and the Liberty Times decreased the amount of coverage of politics, public policies, elections, and other political events on their front pages. The data suggest a significant drop in hard news from 2002 to 2004. Table 1 shows that the size of articles related to politics in the three mainstream newspapers in 2002 (4,585.5 sq. cm) is much larger than in 2004 (3,694.25 sq. cm) and the difference is statistically significant (Chi-square = 95.936, df = 1, p < 0.01). The total size of news photographs about the same topic on the front pages in the three newspapers in 2002 (3,668 sq. cm) is greater than in 2004 (1,362.75 sq. cm) as well. The difference is also statistically significant (Chi-square = 1,056.34, df = 1, p < 0.01). Less space was devoted to articles and photographs on politics in 2004 than in 2002. << Insert Table 1 about here >> Table 2 shows data about articles and photos related to public policies in the three Taiwanese newspapers. The figures reveal that the three newspapers published more news articles on public policies in 2002 (N = 23) than in 2004 (N = 4). The difference between 23 and 4 is statistically significant (Chi- square = 13.37, df = 1, p < 0.01). At the same time, the difference of in terms of size was obvious. In 2002, all three newspapers used 4,558.9 sq. cm for news articles on public policies. However, only 1,263.5 sq. cm were used for the same kind of news articles in 2004. This difference is also statistically significant (Chi-square = 1,865.15, df = 1, p < 0.01). Again, there is a drop in coverage of politics/policies from 2002 to 2004. It should be noted that there is an increase in one newspaper’s (Liberty Times) photographs about daily politics/policies from 2002 (0 sq. cm) to 2004 (531 sq. cm). The increase is statistically significant (Chi-square = 531, df = 1, p < 0.01). On the other hand, the number of photos between years shows no difference statistically. << Insert Table 2 about here >>

Authors: Song, Chien-Yun. and Tu, Jia-Wei.
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DOES COMPETITION MAKE A DIFFERENCE?  
 
12 
formula, the agreement was 75%. According to Keyton (2001), the minimum acceptable inter-coder 
reliability is 70%. Therefore, the inter-coder reliability of this study represents an acceptable level of 
agreement.  
 
Findings 
RQ1asked whether the United Daily, the China Times and the Liberty Times decreased the 
amount of coverage of politics, public policies, elections, and other political events on their front pages. 
The data suggest a significant drop in hard news from 2002 to 2004.  
Table 1 shows that the size of articles related to politics in the three mainstream newspapers in 
2002 (4,585.5 sq. cm) is much larger than in 2004 (3,694.25 sq. cm) and the difference is statistically 
significant (Chi-square = 95.936, df = 1, p < 0.01). The total size of news photographs about the same 
topic on the front pages in the three newspapers in 2002 (3,668 sq. cm) is greater than in 2004 (1,362.75 
sq. cm) as well. The difference is also statistically significant (Chi-square = 1,056.34, df = 1, p < 0.01). 
Less space was devoted to articles and photographs on politics in 2004 than in 2002. 
<< Insert Table 1 about here >> 
Table 2 shows data about articles and photos related to public policies in the three Taiwanese 
newspapers. The figures reveal that the three newspapers published more news articles on public policies 
in 2002 (N = 23) than in 2004 (N = 4). The difference between 23 and 4 is statistically significant (Chi-
square = 13.37, df = 1, p < 0.01). At the same time, the difference of in terms of size was obvious. In 
2002, all three newspapers used 4,558.9 sq. cm for news articles on public policies. However, only 
1,263.5 sq. cm were used for the same kind of news articles in 2004. This difference is also statistically 
significant (Chi-square = 1,865.15, df = 1, p < 0.01). Again, there is a drop in coverage of politics/policies 
from 2002 to 2004. It should be noted that there is an increase in one newspaper’s (Liberty Times) 
photographs about daily politics/policies from 2002 (0 sq. cm) to 2004 (531 sq. cm). The increase is 
statistically significant (Chi-square = 531, df = 1, p < 0.01). On the other hand, the number of photos 
between years shows no difference statistically. 
<< Insert Table 2 about here >> 


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